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Pablo Mendez, Iñigo Azcoitia and Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura

Introduction The nervous system is a target for the ovarian hormone oestradiol. This hormone regulates brain development and function, acting on neurons, synapses and glial cells ( Chowen et al. 2000 , McEwen 2002 ). For many

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C H J Verhoelst, V M Darras, S A Roelens, G M Artykbaeva and S Van der Geyten

Introduction It is well established that thyroid hormones play a crucial role in vertebrate development in general and in brain development and maturation in particular. The impact of thyroid hormones (THS) on the development of the

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Jirapas Sripetchwandee, Hiranya Pintana, Piangkwan Sa-nguanmoo, Chiraphat Boonnag, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Nipon Chattipakorn and Siriporn C Chattipakorn

C ). However, both serum and brain MDA levels in female rats were higher than in male. These findings indicate that females are more vulnerable to the development of a severity in oxidative stress than males ( Figs 1 and 2 ). Figure 2 Effects

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Volker Hartenstein

derivative which has profound effects on larval growth, metamorphosis, egg development, and sexual behavior ( Veelaert et al. 1998 , Vullings et al. 1999 , Gilbert et al. 2000 ). The pars lateralis in the brain via its projections to the CA is the

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E Nieves-Martinez, W E Sonntag, A Wilson, A Donahue, D P Molina, J Brunso-Bechtold and M M Nicolle

, which begins around PD28. Brain development continues through adolescence to young adulthood (PD63–70) ( McCutcheon & Marinelli 2009 ). Because of the high density of GH and IGF1 receptors in the hippocampus ( Adem et al . 1989 , Lai et al . 1993

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Bruce S McEwen, Jason D Gray and Carla Nasca

The stress response and development of allostatic load. The perception of stress is influenced by one's experiences, genetics, and behavior. When the brain perceives an experience as stressful, physiologic and behavioral responses are initiated

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Nathanael J Yates, Dijana Tesic, Kirk W Feindel, Jeremy T Smith, Michael W Clarke, Celeste Wale, Rachael C Crew, Michaela D Wharfe, Andrew J O Whitehouse and Caitlin S Wyrwoll

development and function likely means that vitamin D deficiency associates with many other neuropsychiatric outcomes. We have recently shown that vitamin D deficiency in mice increases placental glucocorticoid transfer and increases fetal brain

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Tabata M Bohlen, Thais T Zampieri, Isadora C Furigo, Pryscila D S Teixeira, Edward O List, John J Kopchick, Jose Donato Jr and Renata Frazao

Introduction Puberty is a complex phenomenon modulated by genetic, epigenetic, environmental, nutritional and hormonal factors. Both the onset and proper development of sexual maturation depend on augmented sex steroid levels, and the ability

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Scott M MacKenzie, Deborah Dewar, William Stewart, Robert Fraser, John M C Connell and Eleanor Davies

production of the sex steroids, which are implicated in certain brain functions. Experimental work on animals has shown that oestrogen has potent neuroprotective properties and is crucial to the development, maintenance and function of normal neural

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John A H Wass and Raghava Reddy

Introduction Much has been written about the effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in GH-deficient human subjects on growth, body composition, cardiovascular risk factors, bone and muscle development and quality of life. When properly