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Paolo Comeglio, Ilaria Cellai, Tommaso Mello, Sandra Filippi, Elena Maneschi, Francesca Corcetto, Chiara Corno, Erica Sarchielli, Annamaria Morelli, Elena Rapizzi, Daniele Bani, Daniele Guasti, Gabriella Barbara Vannelli, Andrea Galli, Luciano Adorini, Mario Maggi and Linda Vignozzi

transaminases (AST and ALT) analyses were obtained from the marginal ear vein at week 12, in all groups. Histomorphometric analysis and hypoxia detection in VAT Immunohistochemical localization of FXR and TGR5 was performed on deparaffinized rehydrated

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Trassanee Chatmethakul and Robert D Roghair

2014 , Taylor et al. 2014 ). Potential triggers of the pathologic cascade include reduced caloric intake, nutritional imbalance and hypoxia, all of which affect the growth and maturation of organ systems and influence homeostatic regulation. The

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N Grion, E M Repetto, Y Pomeraniec, C Martinez Calejman, F Astort, R Sanchez, O P Pignataro, P Arias and C B Cymeryng

expression is induced by a multiplicity of effectors like endotoxin, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, hypoxia, stress, and tissue damage ( Michel & Feron 1997 ). In mammals, microsomal heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-controlling enzyme for

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Hyo Youl Moon, Parkyong Song, Cheol Soo Choi, Sung Ho Ryu and Pann-Ghill Suh

28 339 – 350 . ( doi:10.1055/s-0028-1091978 ) Lee M Hwang JT Lee HJ Jung SN Kang I Chi SG Kim SS Ha J 2003 AMP-activated protein kinase activity is critical for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transcriptional activity and its target

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Eun Hee Koh, Ah-Ram Kim, Hyunshik Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Hye-Sun Park, Myoung Seok Ko, Mi-Ok Kim, Hyuk-Joong Kim, Bum Joong Kim, Hyun Ju Yoo, Su Jung Kim, Jin Sun Oh, Chang-Yun Woo, Jung Eun Jang, Jaechan Leem, Myung Hwan Cho and Ki-Up Lee

include adipose tissue hypoxia ( Ye et al . 2007 , Jiang et al . 2011 ), increased proinflammatory cytokine levels, and oxidative stress in dysfunctional adipocytes ( Otani 2011 ). Another hypothesis that links adipocyte hypertrophy to reduced

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Hasan Kulaksiz, Evelyn Fein, Peter Redecker, Wolfgang Stremmel, Guido Adler and Yalcin Cetin

Introduction Iron is an essential component of hemoglobin and myoglobin and of many enzymes involved in redox reactions and energy metabolism. Low levels of iron in the circulation may cause severe dysfunctions (e.g., anemia, hypoxia) while iron

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Munetaka Shimizu, Brian R Beckman, Akihiko Hara and Walton W Dickhoff

developmental rate under hypoxia, formation of the cardiovascular system and formation of the pharyngeal skeleton and inner ear ( Kajimura et al. 2005 , Li et al. 2005 , Wood et al. 2005 b ). These studies argue for the importance of IGFBPs during

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Hyo-Sup Kim, Seung-Hyun Hong, Seung-Hoon Oh, Jae-Hyeon Kim, Myung-Shik Lee and Moon-Kyu Lee

blood glucose measurements (data not shown). Differentiated ductal cells (1×10 6 ) infected with 1×10 8 pfu adenovirus-GFP were transplanted into the subcapsular spaces of the left kidneys of each group of mice. To determine whether hypoxia was induced

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Diego Safian, Eduardo N Fuentes, Juan Antonio Valdés and Alfredo Molina

, expression profiles, and hormonal regulation . Endocrinology 147 2399 – 2410 . doi:10.1210/en.2005-1570 . Kamei H Lu L Jiao S Li Y Gyrup C Laursen L Oxvig C Zhou J Duan C 2008 Duplication and diversification of the hypoxia

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Marion Walser, Linus Schiöler, Jan Oscarsson, Maria A I Åberg, Johan Svensson, N David Åberg and Jörgen Isgaard

shown that in vitro ischemic preconditioning to hypoxia increased neuronal Hbb expression in the penumbral zone after focal brain ischemia ( He et al . 2009 ), indicating an active role for neuronal Hbb in promoting neuroprotection. Also, Yan et