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Teruo Sugawara, Noriaki Sakuragi and Hisanori Minakami

membranes contain phospholipids, and the inter-membrane space is an aqueous space. Cholesterol is hydrophobic and requires some factors to pass through the aqueous inter-membrane space. Steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein is a 30 kDa phosphorylated

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H A Sterle, E Valli, F Cayrol, M A Paulazo, D J Martinel Lamas, M C Diaz Flaqué, A J Klecha, L Colombo, V A Medina, G A Cremaschi and M L Barreiro Arcos

, 2011 ). However, long-term exposure to T 4 (15 days of culture or more) leads to T lymphoma cell apoptosis ( Mihara et al . 1999 , Barreiro Arcos et al . 2013 ). Cell cycle regulatory proteins such as cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), CDK

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Jerzy Bełtowski, Grażyna Wójcicka and Hieronim Jakubowski

Introduction Leptin is a 16 kDa protein secreted by adipose tissue, which acts on hypothalamic centers to suppress food intake and increase energy expenditure ( Farooqi & O'Rahilly 2009 ). Mutations of leptin- or leptin receptor-encoding genes

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Toru Takahashi, Osamu Yamada, Michael J Soares and Kazuyoshi Hashizume

Introduction The bovine placenta produces an array of proteins structurally and functionally similar to pituitary prolactin (PRL; Soares 2004 ). Bovine placental lactogen (bPL) and ten PRL-related protein (bPRP) genes have been identified

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Pearl P Y Lie, Weiliang Xia, Claire Q F Wang, Dolores D Mruk, Helen H N Yan, Ching-hang Wong, Will M Lee and C Yan Cheng

extensive turnover of proteins is occurring at the BTB during spermatogenesis. Five different classes of protein complexes have been found at the BTB. These include occludins/zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs)/ZO-1, claudins/ZO-1

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W Abbink, X M Hang, P M Guerreiro, F A T Spanings, H A Ross, A V M Canario and G Flik

concentrations and inhibits calcium influx from the environment through the gills and intestine ( Verbost et al. 1993 ). Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is an important hypercalcaemic factor in early vertebrates and is present in the

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Yasuhiko Kato, Kaoru Kobayashi, Shigeto Oda, Norihisa Tatarazako, Hajime Watanabe and Taisen Iguchi

transcription of target genes by forming a heterodimer with another nuclear receptor, the ultraspiracle (USP) protein. This heterodimer formation is essential for gene activation in Drosophila and other arthropods ( Yao et al. 1992 , 1993 , Hall & Thummel

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Zahida Yesmin Roly, Andrew T Major, Alex Fulcher, Martin A Estermann, Claire E Hirst and Craig A Smith

case was reported in which there was a partial deletion in the gene encoding the extra-cellular matrix protein, inter-trypsin inhibitor # 5 ( ITIH5 ) ( Morcel et al . 2012 ). However, most cases of MRKH do not have a molecular diagnosis. Defining the

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KH Lin, HY Lee, CH Shih, CC Yen, SL Chen, RC Yang and CS Wang

Thyroid hormones (THs) regulate growth, development, differentiation and metabolic processes by interacting and activating thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). Although much progress has been made in our understanding of the transcriptional regulation of many TR target genes, little is known of the regulation of plasma protein gene expression by TRs. To investigate the role of TRs in plasma protein expression we used human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and carried out cDNA microarray analysis. Our results indicate that several plasma proteins including transferrin, prothrombin, angiotensinogen, haptoglobin, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein alpha and beta chain, complement, lipoproteins and fibrinogen are up-regulated by THs. Furthermore, clusterin, alpha-2-macroglobulin precursor, prothymosin alpha and alpha-fetoprotein were found to be down-regulated by THs.Transferrin, an iron-binding protein expressed in all mammals, and mainly synthesized in the liver, was investigated further. Immunoblot and Northern blot analyses revealed that exposure of HepG2-TRalpha1 sub-lines and HepG2-Neo cells to tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) induced time- and dose-dependent increases in the abundance of transferrin mRNA and protein, with the extent of these effects correlating with the level of expression of TRalpha1. Nuclear run-on experiments indicate that this induction is functioning at the transcriptional level. Moreover, cyclohexamide treatment did not eliminate the induction of transferrin by TH. Thus, our results suggest that the induction of transferrin by TH is direct and may in fact be mediated by an as yet unidentified response element in the promoter region.

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T Takahashi, K Sato, S Kato, T Yonezawa, Y Kobayashi, Y Ohtani, S Ohwada, H Aso, T Yamaguchi, S G Roh and K Katoh

.g. carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the diet) ( Erdmann et al . 2003 , Monteleone et al . 2003 , Erdmann et al . 2004 , Greenman et al . 2004 ) as well as the nutritional status of ruminants and monogastric animals. Interestingly, ingestion of a high-protein