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S A Lanham, A L Fowden, C Roberts, C Cooper, R O C Oreffo and A J Forhead

). Deiodinase activity has not been measured in the bones of fetal sheep, although hypothyroidism has previously been shown to increase D2 activity in the cerebral cortex of the sheep fetus in order to preserve local production of T 3 important for normal brain

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Malin Hedengran Faulds, Chunyan Zhao, Karin Dahlman-Wright and Jan-Åke Gustafsson

C Osei S Flier JS 1999 Regulation of neuronal and glial proteins by leptin: implications for brain development . Endocrinology 140 2755 – 2762 . doi:10.1210/en.140.6.2755 . Ainslie DA Morris MJ Wittert G Turnbull H Proietto J

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Local impact of thyroid hormone inactivation

Deiodinases: the balance of thyroid hormone

Monica Dentice and Domenico Salvatore

type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase induction after myocardial infarction in rats a time course study . Endocrinology 148 4786 – 4792 doi:10.1210/en.2007-0043 . Oppenheimer JH Schwartz HL 1997 Molecular basis of thyroid hormone-dependent brain

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F Raucci, S D’Aniello and M M Di Fiore

) as well as in the cerebrospinal fluid ( Fisher et al. 1994 ). In addition, d -Asp may participate in brain development, differentiation and functioning ( Hashimoto et al. 1993 , Hashimoto & Oka, 1997 , Imai et al. 1997 , Sakai et al. 1998

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Jia Fang Wang and David J Hill

characterization of NDRG4/Bdm1 protein isoforms that differentially regulated during rat brain development . Developmental Brain Research 135 45 – 53 . Ohki T Hongo S Nakada N Maeda A Takeda M 2002 Inhibition of neurite outgrowth by reduced level

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Kyriaki S Alatzoglou, Daniel Kelberman and Mehul T Dattani

. Ferri AL Cavallaro M Braida D Di Cristofano A Canta A Vezzani A Ottolenghi S Pandolfi PP Sala M DeBiasi S 2004 Sox2 deficiency causes neurodegeneration and impaired neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain . Development 131 3805

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Márcia Santos Wagner, Simone Magagnin Wajner and Ana Luiza Maia

. Endocrine Reviews 14 152 – 164 . Leonard JL 2008 Non-genomic actions of thyroid hormone in brain development . Steroids 73 1008 – 1012 . Lin T Wang D Hu J Stocco DM 1998 Upregulation of human chorionic gonadotrophin

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K A Chan, M W Tsoulis and D M Sloboda

systems including gonadal and brain development ( Forges et al . 2007 , Stover 2011 , Dwarkanath et al . 2013 , Gueant et al . 2013 ). Deficiencies in folate and/or vitamin B during pregnancy increase the risk of neural tube defects, cognitive or

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Cyril S Anyetei-Anum, Vincent R Roggero and Lizabeth A Allison

T 4 and stimulates certain cellular responses, such as the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton that is a vital component of brain development in neurons and glial cells ( Leonard & Farwell 1997 ), and changes in the morphology of breast cancer

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Femke L Groeneweg, Henk Karst, E Ron de Kloet and Marian Joëls

R de Kloet ER 2010 Brain development under stress: hypotheses of glucocorticoid actions revisited . Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 34 853 – 866 doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.07.006 . Olijslagers JE de Kloet ER Elgersma Y van