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Myat Theingi Swe, Laongdao Thongnak, Krit Jaikumkao, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Varanuj Chatsudthipong and Anusorn Lungkaphin

Introduction The role of kidneys in glucose homeostasis under physiological conditions has long been acknowledged. The kidneys are involved in glucose metabolism via three distinct processes: glycolysis for renal glucose uptake

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Jackson Nteeba, Kaiyu Kubota, Wenfang Wang, Hao Zhu, Jay L Vivian, Guoli Dai and Michael J Soares

glycolysis ( Stoffel & Duncan 1997 , Gupta et al. 2007 ). Mice carrying a null mutation in Hnf4a have impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion ( Gupta et al. 2005 , Miura et al. 2006 ). In humans, mutations in HNF4A are strongly associated

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Hsiu-Chi Lee and Shaw-Jenq Tsai

known that gluconeogenesis and β-oxidation take place in periportal hepatocytes (exposed to higher oxygen level), whereas glycolysis and lipogenesis occur in pericentral hepatocytes (exposed to lower oxygen level) ( Guzman & Castro 1989 , Jungermann

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Nicole M Templeman, Søs Skovsø, Melissa M Page, Gareth E Lim and James D Johnson

storage in its major peripheral target tissues, primarily by stimulating: (1) glucose uptake in adipose tissue and muscle; (2) glycolysis and glycogen synthesis in muscle and liver; (3) lipogenesis in adipose tissue and liver and (4) protein synthesis in

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Jiean Xu, Qiuhua Yang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Zhiping Liu, Yapeng Cao, Lina Wang, Yaqi Zhou, Xianqiu Zeng, Qian Ma, Yiming Xu, Yong Wang, Lei Huang, Zhen Han, Tao Wang, David Stepp, Zsolt Bagi, Chaodong Wu, Mei Hong and Yuqing Huo

. 2017 Endothelial adenosine A2a receptor-mediated glycolysis is essential for pathological retinal angiogenesis . Nature Communications 8 584 . ( https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-00551-2 ) 10.1038/s41467-017-00551-2 28928465 Luan G Gao Q

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Ljupka Gligorovska, Biljana Bursać, Sanja Kovačević, Nataša Veličković, Gordana Matić and Ana Djordjevic

2D. Namely, it was already shown that MIF influences glucose metabolism at several levels, including secretion of insulin from pancreas ( Waeber et al. 1997 ), modulation of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue glycolysis, as well as adipocyte

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Sarah L Craig, Victor A Gault, Gerd Hamscher and Nigel Irwin

, enhances beta cell function and improves glucose homeostasis in high-fat-fed mice . Diabetologia 60 541 – 552 . ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-016-4186-y ) Hers HG Hue L 1983 Gluconeogenesis and related aspects of glycolysis . Annual

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Cathy A Guo and Shaodong Guo

, including glucose uptake, glycolysis, and synthesis of glycogen, ribonucleotide and lipid synthesis, whereas insulin inhibits the β-oxidation of fatty acids. An excess amount of ATP can be stored in creatine phosphate, and activated pentose phosphate pathway

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Stefan Groeneweg, Robin P Peeters, Theo J Visser and W Edward Visser

aerobic glycolysis in primary tumor cell cultures more potently than T 3 , T 4 or TA 4 ( Heimberg et al . 1955 ). At high doses of 1000–5000 µg/kg/day, TA 3 rapidly raised the oxygen consumption in hypothyroid rats ( Pitt-Rivers 1953 , Wilkinson

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Paige V Bauer and Frank A Duca

. 2013 ). This may be due to intracellular metabolism and activation of PKC-ζ or PKC-δ to induce GLP-1 or CCK release, respectively ( Iakoubov et al . 2007 , Breen et al . 2011 ), or via alteration of cellular respiration and stimulation of glycolysis