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Folami Y Ideraabdullah, Anthony M Belenchia, Cheryl S Rosenfeld, Seth W Kullman, Megan Knuth, Debabrata Mahapatra, Michael Bereman, Edward D Levin and Catherine A Peterson

generation offspring of VDD dams displayed greater body and epididymal fat mass ( Nascimento et al. 2013 ). These mice also had increased insulin secretion when given an oral glucose challenge and showed marked hepatic steatosis. An in utero VDD Sprague

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Haijiang Wu, Xinna Deng, Yonghong Shi, Ye Su, Jinying Wei and Huijun Duan

inhibitor ameliorates hepatic steatosis by improving ER stress and inflammation in a type 2 diabetic mouse model . PLoS ONE 10 e0120711 . ( doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120711 ) Knutti D Kaul A Kralli A 2000 A tissue-specific coactivator of

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M K Piya, P G McTernan and S Kumar

. ↑ Preadipocyte cell proliferation, as with TNFα Sporn et al . (1987) and Fain et al . (2005) MCP1 Increases insulin resistance, macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue and hepatic steatosis Secreted by WAT ↑ ob/ob and db/db mice. ↑ In obesity, T2DM and

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Milos Mraz and Martin Haluzik

migration ( Gerhardt et al . 2001 , Christiansen et al . 2005 ). Overexpression of MCP1 leads to ATM infiltration, IR, and liver steatosis without increasing body weight, while deletion of MCP1 or macrophage CCR2 reduces ATM numbers in AT and improves

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Gulizar Issa Ameen and Silvia Mora

-Vieira et al . 2014 ) or pharmacologic elevation of serum RBP4 causes insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in mice ( Lee et al . 2016 ). Recent studies in transgenic mice models overexpressing Rbp4 gene in adipose tissue have revealed that RBP4 causes

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Camila Martinez Calejman, Juan M Di Gruccio, María E Mercau, Esteban M Repetto, Francisco Astort, Rocío Sanchez, Matías Pandolfi, Gabriela Berg, Laura Schreier, Pablo Arias and Cora B Cymeryng

accumulation has been detected in nonadipose tissues as pancreas, kidneys, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, and heart. In this sense, Zago et al . (2010) demonstrated an increase in liver weight and moderate hepatic micro- and macrovesicular steatosis in

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Zhengu Liu, Violeta Stanojevic, Luke J Brindamour and Joel F Habener

insulin resistance. This circumstance manifests in hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and steatosis of major organs such as the liver (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease), heart (lipotoxic cardiomyopathy), brain (Alzheimer

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Juliana Gastão Franco, Egberto Gaspar de Moura, Josely Correa Koury, Paula Affonso Trotta, Aline Cordeiro, Luana Lopes Souza, Norma Aparecida dos Santos Almeida, Natália da Silva Lima, Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura, Patrícia Cristina Lisboa and Magna Cottini Fonseca Passos

addition, moderate overexpression of SIRT1 protected cells from oxidative stress ( Csiszar et al . 2006 , Alcendor et al . 2007 , Lee et al . 2009 ), and hepatic SIRT1 action attenuated hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress

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A Feraco, A Armani, R Urbanet, A Nguyen Dinh Cat, V Marzolla, F Jaisser and M Caprio

2010 Spironolactone improves glucose and lipid metabolism by ameliorating hepatic steatosis and inflammation and suppressing enhanced gluconeogenesis induced by high-fat and high-fructose diet . Endocrinology 151 2040 – 2049 . ( https

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Aline Cordeiro, Luana Lopes de Souza, Lorraine Soares Oliveira, Larissa Costa Faustino, Letícia Aragão Santiago, Flavia Fonseca Bloise, Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho, Norma Aparecida dos Santos Almeida and Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura

persistent c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) activation contributes to hepatic steatosis in obesity . Journal of Biological Chemistry 286 22227 – 22234 . ( doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.228874 ) Guigon CJ Zhao L Lu C Willingham MC Cheng SY 2008