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K L Gustafsson, K H Nilsson, H H Farman, A Andersson, V Lionikaite, P Henning, J Wu, S H Windahl, U Islander, S Movérare-Skrtic, K Sjögren, H Carlsten, J-Å Gustafsson, C Ohlsson and M K Lagerquist

( Table 1 and Supplementary Fig. 1, see section on supplementary data given at the end of this article). In addition, serum levels of biomarkers for bone formation (P1NP) and bone resorption (CTX-I) were similar between Lck-ERα −/− and control mice

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Shoshana Yakar, Mary L Bouxsein, Ernesto Canalis, Hui Sun, Vaida Glatt, Caren Gundberg, Pinchas Cohen, David Hwang, Yves Boisclair, Derek LeRoith and Clifford J Rosen

cut on a Microm microtome (Microm, Richards-Allan Scientific, Kalamazoo, MI, USA) and stained with Toluidine Blue. Static parameters of bone formation and resorption were measured at a standardized site in the distal femoral metaphysis using an

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William F Powell Jr, Kevin J Barry, Irena Tulum, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Stephen E Harris, F Richard Bringhurst and Paola Divieti Pajevic

combination of both, we measured markers of bone resorption and bone formation in control and Ocy-PPR cKO mice, as shown in Table 1 . Serum levels of collagen type 1 fragment were indistinguishable between Ocy-PPR cKO and control littermates (PINP

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Marina Komrakova, Stephan Sehmisch, Mohammad Tezval, Ulrich Schmelz, Holm Frauendorf, Thomas Grueger, Thomas Wessling, Carolin Klein, Miriam Birth, Klaus M Stuermer and Ewa K Stuermer

Eastell R Cedel SL O'Fallon WM Riggs BL 1990 Cancellous bone remodeling in type I (postmenopausal) osteoporosis: quantitative assessment of rates of formation, resorption, and bone loss at tissue and cellular levels . Journal of Bone and

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Toshihiro Sugiyama, Toshiaki Takaki, Kenya Sakanaka, Hiroki Sadamaru, Koji Mori, Yoshihiko Kato, Toshihiko Taguchi and Takashi Saito

formation de novo ( Hunter et al. 1996 ) and the rigidity of bone tissue is produced by tiny mineral crystals ( Fratzl et al. 2004 ), we also analyzed the effects of nucleation rate and growth speed of mineral crystals on their rigidity in computer

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Fiona Roberts, Greg Markby, Scott Dillon, Colin Farquharson and Vicky E MacRae

characterisation has improved our understanding of the fine control of ECM mineralisation during skeletal development and the resultant pathological ramifications. Both bone formation and bone resorption are energetically costly. This has led to a hypothesis

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Bernard Freudenthal, John Logan, Sanger Institute Mouse Pipelines, Peter I Croucher, Graham R Williams and J H Duncan Bassett

heritable risk of osteoporosis. The opposing processes of bone resorption and formation are tightly regulated by critical mechanisms including the Wnt signalling and RANKL/RANK/OPG pathways ( Fig. 1 ). At the cellular level, bone remodelling takes place in

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Helen E MacLean, Alison J Moore, Stephen A Sastra, Howard A Morris, Ali Ghasem-Zadeh, Kesha Rana, Anna-Maree Axell, Amanda J Notini, David J Handelsman, Ego Seeman, Jeffrey D Zajac and Rachel A Davey

), and while the mean values for bone formation rate were lower in ARKO males compared to controls, this did not reach statistical significance ( P =0.058; Fig. 4 J). Bone resorption as measured by osteoclast surface (mean± s.e.m. ; control male: 7

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Hiroki Saito, Tomoya Nakamachi, Kazuhiko Inoue, Ryuji Ikeda, Kazuo Kitamura, Naoto Minamino, Seiji Shioda and Atsuro Miyata

that define the particular osteoblast phenotype ( Aubin 1998 ). Bone is continually remodeled via bone resorption and formation – processes controlled by local and systemic factors that regulate osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, proliferation

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Anna E Bollag, Tianyang Guo, Ke-Hong Ding, Vivek Choudhary, Xunsheng Chen, Qing Zhong, Jianrui Xu, Kanglun Yu, Mohamed E Awad, Mohammed Elsalanty, Maribeth H Johnson, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Wendy B Bollag and Carlos M Isales

both men and women by suppressing osteoclast function thus reducing bone resorption and bone turnover, and as women experience menopause, the estrogen deficiency that ensues leads to increased bone resorption and loss of bone strength (reviewed in