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Donald Pfaff

human social behaviour. During development in vertebrates ranging from fish to man, GnRH neurons migrate from their birthplace in the olfactory placode into the brain ( Schwanzel-Fukuda & Pfaff 1989 ). A human with damage at the Kallmann’s syndrome

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Marion Walser, Maria Teresa Samà, Ruth Wickelgren, Maria Åberg, Mohammad Bohlooly-Y, Bob Olsson, Jan Törnell, Jörgen Isgaard and N David Åberg

status in growth hormone deficient patients: a meta-analysis . Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 3 63 . ( doi:10.1186/1477-7525-3-63 ) D'Ercole AJ Ye P 2008 Expanding the mind: insulin-like growth factor I and brain development

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Ekaterine Tskitishvili, Christel Pequeux, Carine Munaut, Renaud Viellevoye, Michelle Nisolle, Agnes Noël and Jean-Michel Foidart

final development of HIE ( Martinez-Biarge et al . 2013 ). As a consequence, brain hypoxia and ischemia due to systemic hypoxemia and reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) are primary reasons leading to perinatal HIE ( Grow & Barks 2002 , Ferriero 2004

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Silvia Begliuomini, Elena Lenzi, Filippo Ninni, Elena Casarosa, Sara Merlini, Nicola Pluchino, Valeria Valentino, Stefano Luisi, Michele Luisi and Andrea R Genazzani

. 2004). BDNF is recognized to play an important role in growth, differentiation, and survival of neurons during brain development ( Bothwell 1995 , Lewin & Barde 1996 ), as well as in adulthood ( Con Over & Yancoupouolos 1997 , Lu & Figurov 1997

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Christian Hölscher

. Insulin desensitisation can occur in the brain Recent research has shown that insulin desensitisation can also occur in the brain. In several patient database analyses, T2DM has been identified as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson

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Sarah L Alderman and Mathilakath M Vijayan

described neurogenic regions of the zebrafish brain ( Zupanc et al . 2005 , Grandel et al . 2006 ). In fetal mammals, Hsd11b2 prevents untimely neural differentiation by glucocorticoids and is required for normal brain development ( Diaz et al . 1998

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Malathi Srinivasan, Paul Mitrani, Gigani Sadhanandan, Catherine Dodds, Suhad Shbeir-ElDika, Shanthie Thamotharan, Hussam Ghanim, Paresh Dandona, Sherin U Devaskar and Mulchand S Patel

glial proteins by leptin: implications for brain development . Endocrinology 140 2755 – 2762 . Van Assche FA Holemans K Aerts L 2001 Long-term consequences for offspring of diabetes during pregnancy . British Medical Bulletin 60 173 – 182

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Subhshri Sahu, David Tosh and Anandwardhan A Hardikar

Chemistry 277 12369 – 12374 . Kalinichenko VV Gusarova GA Shin B Costa RH 2003 The forkhead box F1 transcription factor is expressed in brain and head mesenchyme during mouse embryonic development . Gene Expression Patterns 3 153 – 158

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Deborah M Sloboda, Timothy J M Moss, Shaofu Li, Stephen G Matthews, John R G Challis and John P Newnham

maximum brain growth in the ovine fetus ( Dobbing & Sands 1979 ), it could be that both GR and 11βHSD1 play a role in glucocorticoid-related neuronal development and differentiation. The fact that we were unable to detect mRNA levels of 11βHSD2 suggests

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Alberto Loizzo, Santi M Spampinato, Gabriele Campana, Stefano Vella, Andrea Fortuna, Loredana Costa, Anna Capasso, Palmiero Monteleone, Paolo Renzi and Stefano Loizzo

during the first 3 weeks of postnatal life in rodents, both HPA feedback control mechanisms and brain receptors for opioids and corticosteroids reach their critical development. Stressful insults applied to developing mice during this period produce long