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Marion Walser, Linus Schiöler, Jan Oscarsson, Maria A I Åberg, Johan Svensson, N David Åberg and Jörgen Isgaard

shown that in vitro ischemic preconditioning to hypoxia increased neuronal Hbb expression in the penumbral zone after focal brain ischemia ( He et al . 2009 ), indicating an active role for neuronal Hbb in promoting neuroprotection. Also, Yan et

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Breno Picin Casagrande, Daniel Vitor de Souza, Daniel Araki Ribeiro, Alessandra Medeiros, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani and Debora Estadella

of the triggers and one of the results of the pathways’ activation, since it promotes the cleavage of pro-IL1β into its active form via NLRP3-caspase1 ( Liu et al. 2017 , Jin & Fu 2019 ). Associated with hypoxia, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and TNFα

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K L Franko, D A Giussani, A J Forhead and A L Fowden

of dexamethasone suppress pituitary adrenal function but augment the glycaemic response to acute hypoxia in fetal sheep during late gestation. Pediatric Research 47 684 –691. Forhead AJ , Poore KR, Mapstone J & Fowden

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G Basini, S Bussolati, S E Santini, F Bianchi, M Careri, A Mangia, M Musci and F Grasselli

. 2000 ). Moreover, similar to 2-methoxyestradiol ( Becker et al . 2008 ), 2-OHE2, and 4-OHE2 could inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1α that has been documented to play a key role in the VEGFA-induced angiogenesis ( Basini et al . 2004 ). Further

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Matthias Haase, Matthias Schott, Stefan R Bornstein, Ludwik K Malendowicz, Werner A Scherbaum and Holger S Willenberg

inhibiton of hypoxia inducible factor-1 by competitive binding to CBP/p300 ( Bhattacharya et al. 1999 , Freedman et al. 2003 ). CITED2 overexpression has been associated with oncogenic transformation and enhanced proliferation in different cell types

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A I Turner, B J Hosking, R A Parr and A J Tilbrook

to acute stress during late gestation. For example, fetal plasma concentrations of cortisol were elevated following haemorrhage ( Rose et al. 1978 ), hypotension ( Wood et al. 1982 ), hypoxia ( Giussani et al. 1994 ) and hypoxemia ( Gardner et

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Andrea Mafficini and Aldo Scarpa

inactivating mutations in the namesake gene, which is a negative regulator of the of the hypoxia-induced pro-proliferative HIF1 gene, a downstream effector of the PI3K/mTOR pathway as well; the VHL gene has also been reported to be frequently inactivated by

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Laura D Brown

initiation complex. Under conditions of oxygen and energy restriction (depicted in pink), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), regulated in development and DNA damage responses 1 (REDD1), and 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) decrease the rates of protein

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Alice S Green, Paul J Rozance and Sean W Limesand

insulin release ( Cheung 1990 , Milley 1997 , Jackson et al . 2000 ). In human fetuses, norepinephrine concentrations are also increased during hypoxia and are higher in IUGR fetuses ( Paulick et al . 1985 , Greenough et al . 1990 ). We have shown

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Natasha N Chattergoon

evidence that fetal stressors, including poor nutrition and hypoxia, lead to detrimental changes in the heart and its blood vessels and elevated disease risk for life. The capacity of cardiomyocytes to proliferate over the life course has been