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F Aréchiga-Ceballos, E Alvarez-Salas, G Matamoros-Trejo, M I Amaya, C García-Luna and P de Gortari

whether this process was adequately achieved by overfed animals. Materials and methods Animals All experiments were approved by the local committee of ethics on animal experimentation and complied with the Mexican official norm NOM-062-ZOO-1999 relating to

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E P S Conceição, E G Moura, A C Manhães, J C Carvalho, J L Nobre, E Oliveira and P C Lisboa

, Yao et al. 2015 ). Conversely, in an obese rat model, our group evidenced a higher serum level of the prohormone 25(OH)D, which best represents the vitamin D status ( Holick 2009 , Briot et al. 2009 , Glendenning 2015 , Souberbielle et al

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Jorge N Artaza and Keith C Norris

considered as a reversible and curable process ( Fallowfield et al . 2006 , Iredale 2007 ) when interventions can be initiated at earlier stages of the disease ( Kisseleva & Brenner 2006 ). Recently, it has been clinically shown, that the administration of

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Jiannan Zhang, Xin Li, Yawei Zhou, Lin Cui, Jing Li, Chenlei Wu, Yiping Wan, Juan Li and Yajun Wang

Introduction It is well documented that in mammals, proopiomelanocortin ( POMC ) gene encodes a large POMC precursor, and the tissue-specific processing of POMC precursor by two prohormone convertases (PC1/3 and PC2) gives rise to several

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Arturo Hernandez and M Elena Martinez

Introduction Testicular development and function are critical for normal spermatogenesis and male reproduction. The growth and maturation of the testes require the timely occurrence of multiple processes of cell proliferation, differentiation

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Marc Schneeberger, Ramon Gomis and Marc Claret

Introduction The regulation of appetite and body weight is an intricate process controlled by redundant and distributed neural systems that integrate a myriad of cognitive, hedonic, emotional, and homeostatic cues to precisely regulate systemic

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Barbara C Fam, Rebecca Sgambellone, Zheng Ruan, Joseph Proietto and Sofianos Andrikopoulos

assessed ARC gene expression of the orexigenic neuropeptides Npy and Agrp , the anorexigenic pro-hormone Pomc and a marker of leptin insensitivity, Socs3 . Npy ( Fig. 4 A) and Agrp ( Fig. 4 B) mRNA levels were not significantly different between

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Harleen Kaur, Beverly S Muhlhausler, Pamela Su-Lin Sim, Amanda J Page, Hui Li, Maria Nunez-Salces, Georgia S Clarke, Lili Huang, Rebecca L Wilson, Johannes D Veldhuis, Chen Chen, Claire T Roberts and Kathryn L Gatford

generate pulsatile GH secretion from the anterior pituitary, is one possible candidate. In mouse stomach, the endoproteolytic processing of the ghrelin molecule from its precursor (proghrelin) into mature ghrelin is facilitated by the enzyme prohormone

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Daniel Cuevas-Ramos and Maria Fleseriu

ultimately converted into biologically active aldosterone, cortisol, or androstenedione that is further processed to testosterone in testicles. The zona glomerulosa, fasciculata, and reticularis are the three adrenal cortex histological zones, which

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Riccardo Dore, Luka Levata, Hendrik Lehnert and Carla Schulz

), possesses a number of putative cleavage sites, suggesting further processing ( Oh-I et al. 2006 ). The N-terminal fragment, named nesfatin-1, was subsequently identified in rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN