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Yumiko Honjo, Shigekazu Sasaki, Yoshimasa Kobayashi, Hiroko Misawa and Hirotoshi Nakamura

presence of CDCA, FXR enhanced the transcriptional activities of these promoters in CV1 cells. Interestingly, ligand-dependent transcriptional repression by VDR was again detected in all three promoters (Fig. 2B–D ). Although bile acid is known to bind not

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Claire U Onyimba, Neelima Vijapurapu, S John Curnow, Pamela Khosla, Paul M Stewart, Philip I Murray, Elizabeth A Walker and Saaeha Rauz

–receptor binding induces conformational changes within the GR unmasking nuclear localisation signals. Translocation of the ligand-activated GR to hormone response elements in the nuclear chromatin modulates transcription of specific GC-responsive genes (Tsai & O

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Cyril S Anyetei-Anum, Vincent R Roggero and Lizabeth A Allison

-dependent transcription factors. By modulating the transcription of target genes in response to ligand, TRs play key physiological roles in the regulation of many aspects of development, growth and metabolism, including the regulation of mitochondrial activity ( Flamant

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O Schakman, H Gilson and J P Thissen

by the proteasome (several subunits of the 20S proteasome; Mitch & Goldberg 1996 ). This gene transcription activation is associated with an increased rate of protein ubiquitination and increased proteolytic activities of the proteasome itself

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Catalina Sierra-Ramos, Silvia Velazquez-Garcia, Arianna Vastola-Mascolo, Guadalberto Hernández, Nourdine Faresse and Diego Alvarez de la Rosa

phosphorylates signaling molecules such as GSK3β and promotes cell survival and proliferation by phosphorylating the FOXO family of transcription factors ( Brunet et al. 2001 ). SGK1 has an important role enhancing transepithelial Na + reabsorption ( Chen et

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George Schlossmacher, Adam Stevens and Anne White

steroid hormone family, which exert most of their effects by altering transcription of an array of steroid responsive genes. The transcriptional effects are mediated via the Gc receptor (GR), which is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family. Gcs

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Hsiu-Chi Lee and Shaw-Jenq Tsai

/CBP complex is also inhibited by hydroxylation of asparagine residue by FIH. Under hypoxia, the enzymatic activity of PHDs and FIH are decreased. Therefore, HIF-α subunit escapes the degradation and associates with HIF-β and the transcriptional co

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C D Simmons, J M P Pabona, Z Zeng, M C Velarde, D Gaddy, F A Simmen and R C M Simmen

models ( Di Cristofano & Ellenson 2007 ). Multiple mechanisms underlie the control of ESR1 expression and activity; these include regulation at the levels of transcription involving multiple promoters ( Kos et al . 2001 ); alternative splicing ( Heldring

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J Varayoud, J G Ramos, L Monje, V Bosquiazzo, M Muñoz-de-Toro and E H Luque

with a higher affinity than ERβ, therefore promotes higher rates of ERα-mediated transcriptional activity at the estrogen response element (ERE) ( Pettersson et al. 2000 ). Moreover, ERα and ERβ may have entirely opposite transcriptional effects at

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Yun-Ju Chen, Pei-Wen Hsiao, Ming-Ting Lee, J Ian Mason, Ferng-Chun Ke and Jiuan-Jiuan Hwang

transduction activated in response to growth factors and is thought to contribute to many important cellular functions, including nutrient metabolism, cell growth, apoptosis, and modulating the activity of transcription factors ( Brazil et al. 2004 , Hanada