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Z Zhang, P H Bisschop, E Foppen, H C van Beeren, A Kalsbeek, A Boelen and E Fliers

GCAGTACAGCCCCAAAATGG AACAAAGTCTGGCCTGTATCCAA 84 Thyrotropin releasing hormone, prepropeptide Trh TCTGCAGAGTCTCCACTTCG AGAGCCAGCAGCAACCAA 59 Deiodinase type 3 Dio3 AGCGCAGCAAGAGTACTTCAG CCATCGTGTCCAGAACCAG 61 Hairless Hr

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Hidenori Nagao, Tetsuya Imazu, Hiroyuki Hayashi, Kenjo Takahashi and Kouichi Minato

by removal of one iodine atom from the outer ring of T 4 (outer-ring deiodination) in tissues outside the thyroid gland, such as the liver, kidney, muscle, and nervous system. The deiodination reaction is catalyzed by deiodinase enzymes. Two

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Juan Bernal

, respectively. Deiodinases and TH concentrations in the cortex Thyroid follicular cell secretion consists almost entirely of T 4 , with only 5–10% of secreted iodothyronines in the form of T 3 . The majority of T 3 is formed from T 4 in tissues

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Natasha N Chattergoon

triiodothyronine (T3) and reverse T3 (rT3) levels in normal fetal sheep ( Polk 1995 ) (A). The prepartum surge is driven by the prepartum cortisol surge stimulating deiodinase expression and conversion from T4. Cortisol stimulates D1 activity and suppresses D3

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Camila Calvino, Luana L Souza, Ricardo H Costa-e-Sousa, Norma A S Almeida, Isis H Trevenzoli and Carmen C Pazos-Moura

of the HPT axis ( Ahima & Flier 2000 , Seoane et al . 2000 ). Several studies have demonstrated that leptin modulates thyroid function, acting at the hypothalamus, pituitary and thyroid. Leptin also modulates the activity of 5′-deiodinases ( Yu et

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Bénédicte Rabier, Allan J Williams, Frederic Mallein-Gerin, Graham R Williams and O Chassande

de-iodinases in some tissues, including liver ( Amma et al. 2001 ) and cochlea ( Campos-Barros et al. 2000 ), thus modifying the local metabolism of TH. The aim of this study was to determine the roles of Trα and TRβ in T 3 -stimulation of

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Márcia Santos Wagner, Simone Magagnin Wajner and Ana Luiza Maia

thyroid hormone plays a key role in testicular development. Interestingly, the presence of iodothyronine deiodinases, enzymes that modulate the concentration, and thus the actions of thyroid hormones in different tissues were also identified in the rodent

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S A Lanham, A L Fowden, C Roberts, C Cooper, R O C Oreffo and A J Forhead

largely determined by the activities of deiodinase enzymes in specific tissues ( Polk 1995 ). For most of gestation, thyroxine (T 4 ) is metabolized to reverse-T 3 , which is biologically inactive, by deiodinase type 3 (D3) activity in the placenta and

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Perry Barrett, Elena Ivanova, E Scott Graham, Alexander W Ross, Dana Wilson, Helene Plé, Julian G Mercer, Francis J Ebling, Sandrine Schuhler, Sandrine M Dupré, Andrew Loudon and Peter J Morgan

–pituitary–thyroid hormone axis, being the only source in the brain of type II deiodinase responsible for the conversion of inactive thyroxine (T4) to active tri iodothyronine (T3) ( Diano et al. 1998 ). Tanycytes of the ependymal layer are characterized by long

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Joachim M Weitzel, Torsten Viergutz, Dirk Albrecht, Rupert Bruckmaier, Marion Schmicke, Armin Tuchscherer, Franziska Koch and Björn Kuhla

regulatory mechanisms, the ligand itself can be modified e.g. via the action of deiodinases ( Piehl et al. 2011 , Gereben et al. 2015 ). The combined action of THR together with its ligand regulates a wide variety of TH target genes via TH response