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Mohammad Reza Safarinejad, Kamran Azma and Ali Asgar Kolahi

oxidative stress in erythrocytes in rat . European Journal of Applied Physiology 91 622 – 627 . Padron OF Brackett NL Sharma RK Lynne CM Thomas AJ Jr Agarwal A 1997 Seminal reactive oxygen species, sperm motility and morphology in men

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Kleber L A Souza, Ewa Gurgul-Convey, Matthias Elsner and Sigurd Lenzen

synthase (iNOS) and production of reactive oxygen species. Cytokine-induced nitrosative and oxidative stresses trigger eventually β-cell death ( Eizirik et al . 1996 a , b , Eizirik & Mandrup-Poulsen 2001 , Bast et al . 2002 ). β-Cells produce a large

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Shannon M Bailey, Uduak S Udoh and Martin E Young

reactive oxygen species (ROS) for redox signaling, regulate cytosolic Ca 2+ levels, participate in the biosynthesis of amino acids and heme, generate heat via thermogenesis, and serve as a gatekeeper for apoptotic and necrotic signaling. Highlighting the

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Philip Newsholme, Vinicius Cruzat, Frank Arfuso and Kevin Keane

, particularly in the presence of high glucose, can elicit damaging effects in β-cells through excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by increased TCA metabolite turnover, enhanced electron transport chain activity and elevated ER stress (conditions

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Elisabete A Forsberg, Ileana R Botusan, Jing Wang, Verena Peters, Ishrath Ansurudeen, Kerstin Brismar and Sergiu Bogdan Catrina

, Gallant et al . 2000 , Guiotto et al . 2005 ). Carnosine acts as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species including peroxyl radicals and superoxide ( Boldyrev et al . 2013 ). The importance of carnosine in diabetes and its chronic complications was

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Blerina Kola and Márta Korbonits

–AMPK–malonyl-CoA–carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1)–β-oxidation–reactive oxygen species (ROS)–UCP2–NPY/AgRP–food intake ( Fig. 1 ). Figure 1 Schematic diagram showing the proposed molecules involved in the appetite-inducing effect of ghrelin. The activation of molecules highlighted in red

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T Pasqua, B Tota, C Penna, A Corti, M C Cerra, Y P Loh and T Angelone

against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rodents ( Hausenloy & Yellon 2004 ). Conceivably, they could also be involved in the serpinin-induced anti-apoptotic effects against reactive oxygen species (ROS) reported in cultured cerebral neurons

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Martha Lappas, Sofianos Andrikopoulos and Michael Permezel

-acid-transport in placental trophoblasts isolated from first-trimester chorionic villi . Journal of Reproductive Medicine 39 249 – 256 . Kozlovsky N Rudich A Potashnik R Bashan N 1997a Reactive oxygen species activate glucose transport in L6

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Caitlin S Wyrwoll, Peter J Mark, Trevor A Mori and Brendan J Waddell

suppression of lipid peroxidation and the production of reactive oxygen species ( Vidal-Puig et al . 2000 , Brand et al . 2002 ). But, UCP3 can also stimulate glucose uptake and recruitment of SLC2A4 to the cell surface ( Huppertz et al . 2001 ) and so its

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A Glover and S J Assinder

epithelial cell height, was not affected. During storage in the epididymis, sperm must be protected from damage caused by reactive oxygen species ( Aitken & Vernet 1998 ). The epididymis provides protection by the secretion of antioxidant enzymes