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Hiranya Pintana, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Nipon Chattipakorn and Siriporn C Chattipakorn

decreased glucagon secretion and increased insulin sensitivity ( Baggio & Drucker 2007 ). Previous studies on diabetes-related Alzheimer's disease rat models have demonstrated that GLP-1 positively affects learning and memory ( During et al . 2003 , Chen

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Sebastio Perrini, Luigi Laviola, Marcos C Carreira, Angelo Cignarelli, Annalisa Natalicchio and Francesco Giorgino

metabolic abnormalities, including reduced insulin sensitivity, impaired oxidative defense, and decreased mitochondrial function ( Dela & Kjaer 2006 ). During aging, the loss of muscle mass and strength is due to progressive atrophy, loss of muscle fibers

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Xiaoqin Shi, Xinyu Li, Yi Hou, Xuemei Cao, Yuyao Zhang, Heng Wang, Hongyin Wang, Chuan Peng, Jibin Li, Qifu Li, Chaodong Wu and Xiaoqiu Xiao

STZ-O ( Fig. 1F ). Paternal hyperglycemia induced glucose intolerance and reduced insulin sensitivity in male offspring To test whether paternal hyperglycemia altered glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in the offspring, GTTs ( Fig. 2A

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AnneMarie Gagnon, Charlie Foster, Anne Landry and Alexander Sorisky

insulin sensitivity, and its genetic deletion results in a more favorable metabolic phenotype. Within adipose tissue, IL1β is produced by macrophages and, to a lesser extent, by adipose cells ( Tack et al . 2012 ). IL1β binds to the IL1 type 1 receptor to

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Pongpan Tanajak, Hiranya Pintana, Natthaphat Siri-Angkul, Juthamas Khamseekaew, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Siriporn C Chattipakorn and Nipon Chattipakorn

), cardiac function, cardiac mitochondrial function and FGF21 signaling pathways in HFD-induced obese-insulin-resistant rats have not been investigated. In this study, we hypothesized that long-term CR and vildagliptin increase insulin sensitivity

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Patricia K Russell, Salvatore Mangiafico, Barbara C Fam, Michele V Clarke, Evelyn S Marin, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Kristine M Wiren, Jeffrey D Zajac and Rachel A Davey

hyperleptinaemia ( Lin et al . 2005 ) or increased serum adiponectin and altered energy balance in the absence of any changes in insulin sensitivity ( Fan et al . 2005 ). It is possible that the differences in the metabolic phenotype between the different mouse

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Melissa F Jackson, Dung Luong, Dor Dor Vang, Dilip K Garikipati, James B Stanton, O Lynne Nelson and Buel D Rodgers

J Gavrilova O McPherron AC 2009 Myostatin inhibition in muscle, but not adipose tissue, decreases fat mass and improves insulin sensitivity . PLoS ONE 4 e4937 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004937 . Hamrick MW 2003 Increased bone

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Zhenping Liu, Per Bendix Jeppesen, Søren Gregersen, Lotte Bach Larsen and Kjeld Hermansen

observations indicate that exposure to leucine may have detrimental effects on both β-cell function and insulin sensitivity. Declaration of interest The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the

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Mariana Renovato Martins, Anatalia Kutianski Gonzalez Vieira, Érica Patrícia Garcia de Souza and Anibal Sanchez Moura

disturbances, and diminished peripheral insulin sensitivity. Materials and Methods Animals and treatments Virgin female Swiss mice were time crossed at 3 months of age. During pregnancy, they were singly housed under standard conditions. After birth, litters

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Peter J Simons, Petra S van den Pangaart, Johannes M F G Aerts and Louis Boon

activate different signaling pathways and exert different functions ( Trujillo & Scherer 2005 ). Importantly, the ratio of HMW:total adiponectin, but not absolute levels of adiponectin, has been proposed to correlate with insulin sensitivity in mice and