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Joyce Emons, Andrei S Chagin, Torun Malmlöf, Magnus Lekman, Åsa Tivesten, Claes Ohlsson, Jan M Wit, Marcel Karperien and Lars Sävendahl

-induced recruitment of both estrogen receptor alpha and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 to the vascular endothelial growth factor promoter . Molecular Endocrinology 19 2006 – 2019 . Kember NF Cell kinetics and the control of bone growth Acta Paediatrica 82 Suppl

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Mark A Exley, Laura Hand, Donal O'Shea and Lydia Lynch

inflammation is triggered is not completely understood, but it is suggested that lipotoxicity ( Unger & Scherer 2010 ), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress due to excess lipid burden ( Ozcan et al . 2004 ), hypoxia due to decreased oxygen diffusion into enlarged

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Hitesh Soni and Adebowale Adebiyi

improving regional hypoxia . Experimental Nephrology 3 331 – 337 . Hook JB Bailie MD 1979 Perinatal renal pharmacology . Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 19 491 – 509 . ( doi:10.1146/annurev.pa.19.040179.002423 ) Igbe I

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Marta Montolio, Montse Biarnés, Noèlia Téllez, Jessica Escoriza, Joan Soler and Eduard Montanya

), hypoxia of islets ( Dionne et al. 1993 ), the metabolic condition of the recipient ( Merino et al. 1997 ) and the absence of survival factors present in the non-endocrine pancreas ( Ilieva et al. 1999 ). In addition, non-specific inflammation at the

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Michela Campolo, Akbar Ahmad, Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Rossana Morabito, Emanuela Esposito and Salvatore Cuzzocrea

ones. Immediately following TBI, the direct trauma and the lack of blood flow cause necrotic neuronal death; however, even greater apoptotic neuronal loss occurs hours and days later, caused by secondary injury from cerebral ischemia/hypoxia as well as

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J E Digby, J Chen, J Y Tang, H Lehnert, R N Matthews and H S Randeva

using scissors to prevent tissue hypoxia. Tissue was then immediately transported and utilized for tissue culture within 1 h of excision. Prior to culture, tissue was further minced into approximately 1 mm 3 fragments and washed by pouring through a

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Weiwei Qin, Wenbao Lu, Hongwei Li, Xiaochen Yuan, Bingwei Li, Qiuju Zhang and Ruijuan Xiu

interactions in endothelial permeability regulation . Journal of Anatomy 200 561 – 574 . doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2002.00057.x . Bauer AT Burgers HF Rabie T Marti HH 2010 Matrix metalloproteinase-9 mediates hypoxia-induced vascular leakage in

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Masahiro Ogawa, Tomoya Kitakaze, Naoki Harada and Ryoichi Yamaji

Inui H Nakano Y 2011 Kelch-like 20 up-regulates the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α through hypoxia- and von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein-independent regulatory mechanisms . Biochemical and Biophysical Research

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J Patel, K Landers, H Li, R H Mortimer and K Richard

– 570 doi:10.1677/joe.0.1750553 . Patel J Landers K Mortimer RH Richard K 2010 Regulation of hypoxia inducible factors (HIF) in hypoxia and normoxia during placental development . Placenta 31 951 – 957 doi:10

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Zhenguang Zhang, Agnes E Coutinho, Tak Yung Man, Tiina M J Kipari, Patrick W F Hadoke, Donald M Salter, Jonathan R Seckl and Karen E Chapman

associated with reduced adipose tissue hypoxia and inflammation ( Michailidou et al . 2012 ) and in cutaneous surgical wounds, where it is associated with improved wound repair ( Small et al . 2005 ). Here, we have generated mice deficient in 11β-HSD1 in