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Jirapas Sripetchwandee, Hiranya Pintana, Piangkwan Sa-nguanmoo, Chiraphat Boonnag, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Nipon Chattipakorn and Siriporn C Chattipakorn

 < 0.05 vs normal diet-fed male rats with sham operation, † P  < 0.05 vs normal diet-fed female rats with sham operation and ‡ P  < 0.05 vs male gender with same group. HFD, high-fat diet; ROS, reactive oxygen species. Figure 4 Effects

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T Yada, H Kaiya, K Mutoh, T Azuma, S Hyodo and K Kangawa

-R-mediated mechanism. Administration of ghrelin increased mRNA levels of SOD, which catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. This result suggests that ghrelin and GH stimulate both superoxide and hydrogen peroxide as reactive oxygen

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Michela Campolo, Akbar Ahmad, Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Rossana Morabito, Emanuela Esposito and Salvatore Cuzzocrea

. Neuroscience Letters 448 263 – 267 . ( doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2008.10.076 ) Lambert AJ Brand MD 2009 Reactive oxygen species production by mitochondria . Methods in Molecular Biology 554 165 – 181 . ( doi:10.1007/978-1-59745-521-3_11 ) Li ZQ

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Cheryl A Conover, Megan A Mason, James A Levine and Colleen M Novak

posits that a decrease in overall metabolic rate decreases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during respiration, thereby slowing the aging process (reviewed in Masoro 2005 ). If so, then reduced IGF signaling might result in decreases in

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Tod Fullston, Nicole O McPherson, Deirdre Zander-Fox and Michelle Lane

-to-heavy smokers compared to mild smokers ( Sharma et al. 2016 ). In addition, smoking also alters sperm microRNA content, greatly increases the abundance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the seminal plasma, increases sperm DNA fragmentation and increases

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Sheree D Martin and Sean L McGee

et al . 2002 ). The uptake of glutamine and subsequent conversion to glutamate is also required for the production of nonessential amino acids and for the synthesis of glutathione for the glutathione system that buffers reactive oxygen species ( Jin

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A Mostyn, J C Litten, K S Perkins, M C Alves-Guerra, C Pecqueur, B Miroux, M E Symonds and L Clarke

al. 1998 , Boss et al. 2000 ), production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) ( Negre-Salvayre et al. 1997 , Kizaki et al. 2002 ) and apoptosis ( Voehringer et al. 2000 ). However, research into the role of UCP2 has been hampered by a lack of

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K L Franko, D A Giussani, A J Forhead and A L Fowden

changes in these tissues and activate many of the biochemical processes, which have little or no function in fetal life ( Fowden et al. 1998 ). In all species studied so far, there is an increase in the circulating glucocorticoid concentration in the

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S S Jonker and S Louey

sheep, except where critical data is available only from other species. Modes of growth in the fetal sheep heart Proliferation Proliferation of immature contractile cardiomyocytes is well established in all vertebrate orders ( Rumyantsev 1991 ), and is

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Srinivasulu Chigurupati, Tae Gen Son, Dong-Hoon Hyun, Justin D Lathia, Mohamed R Mughal, Jason Savell, Shuan C Li, G P C Nagaraju, Sic L Chan, Thiruma V Arumugam and Mark P Mattson

2002 , Sanz et al . 2006 , Liu et al . 2008 ). Major reactive oxygen species (ROS) implicated in age-related tissue dysfunction and damage include superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and nitric oxide and peroxynitrite