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Motoi Sohmiya and Yuzuru Kato

EIA as previously described ( Sohmiya & Kato 1992 , Sohmiya et al. 1993 ). Plasma rat GH levels were measured by a highly sensitive EIA as previously described ( Sohmiya & Kato 1994 ). There is no cross-reactivity of rat GH with hGH in the EIA. IGF

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Sangeeta Maity, Dipak Kar, Kakali De, Vivek Chander and Arun Bandyopadhyay

). Mitochondria produces a major part of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell as a byproduct of the electron transport chain, which is detoxified by the cellular antioxidant system under physiological conditions ( Gustafsson & Gottlieb 2008 , Zhang et al . 2008

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Ziping Jiang, Junduo Wu, Fuzhe Ma, Jun Jiang, Linlin Xu, Lei Du, Wenlin Huang, Zhaohui Wang, Ye Jia, Laijin Lu and Hao Wu

promotes oxidative stress (OS) ( Giacco & Brownlee 2010 ) which contributes to ED ( Ceriello et al . 2013 ). Under hyperglycemia, an aberrant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) exceeds the scavenging capacity of the antioxidant defense system

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Apiwan Arinno, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Puntarik Kaewthep, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Siriporn C Chattipakorn and Nipon Chattipakorn

obtained. The cardiac mitochondrial protein content was determined using a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay ( Apaijai et al. 2013 ). Cardiac mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) determination Cardiac mitochondria (0.4 mg/mL) were stained with 2

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Qiongge Zhang, Chaoqun Wang, Yehua Tang, Qiangqiang Zhu, Yongcheng Li, Haiyan Chen, Yi Bao, Song Xue, Liangliang Sun, Wei Tang, Xiangfang Chen, Yongquan Shi, Lefeng Qu, Bin Lu and Jiaoyang Zheng

) activation of protein kinase C (PKC) pathway, (3) reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, ultimately leading to increased oxidative stress, (4) increased advanced glycation end products (AGE) formation and (5) increased hexosamine pathway ( Kitada et al

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Hui-Fang Wang, Qing-Qing Yu, Rui-Fang Zheng and Ming Xu

reactive oxygen species (ROS) production The measurement of ROS production was performed using the fluorescent probe dihydroethidium (DHE; Sigma, CAS 104821-25-2) and dichloro-dihydrofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA; Sigma, CAS 4091-99-0) ( Kung et al

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Sieneke Labruijere, E Leonie A F van Houten, René de Vries, Usha M Musterd-Bagghoe, Ingrid M Garrelds, Piet Kramer, A H Jan Danser, Carlos M Villalón, Jenny A Visser and Antoinette MaassenVanDenBrink

, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) (an inhibitor of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and eNOS uncoupling), 30 μmol/l N -acetyl-cysteine (NAC; Sigma Chemical Co.) or 100 μmol/l tempol (Sigma Chemical Co.; both ROS inhibitors) prior to precontraction with

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Isabel C Greenman, Edith Gomez, Claire E J Moore and Terence P Herbert

particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress, probably due to its low anti-oxidative enzyme activity, which makes it difficult to inactivate reactive oxygen species ( Grankvist et al. 1981 , Lenzen et al. 1996 , Tiedge et al. 1997 ). This weakness of the

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Martha Lappas, Michael Permezel and Gregory E Rice

and tumours (reviewed in Bucciarelli et al. 2002 , Chavakis et al. 2004 , Bierhaus et al. 2005 , Ramasamy et al. 2005 ). Ligand–receptor interaction, through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induces sustained post

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Liqiong Song, Wei Xia, Zhao Zhou, Yuanyuan Li, Yi Lin, Jie Wei, Zhengzheng Wei, Bing Xu, Jie Shen, Weiyong Li and Shunqing Xu

mitochondrial membrane ( Rial et al . 1999 ) and play a critical role in insulin resistance, glucose utilization, and the regulation of reactive oxygen species ( Arsenijevic et al . 2000 ). Overexpression of UCP2 could reduce the efficiency of mitochondrial