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Isabel C Greenman, Edith Gomez, Claire E J Moore and Terence P Herbert

particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress, probably due to its low anti-oxidative enzyme activity, which makes it difficult to inactivate reactive oxygen species ( Grankvist et al. 1981 , Lenzen et al. 1996 , Tiedge et al. 1997 ). This weakness of the

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Qiong Lv, Rufei Gao, Chuan Peng, Juan Yi, Lulu Liu, Shumin Yang, Danting Li, Jinbo Hu, Ting Luo, Mei Mei, Ying Song, Chaodong Wu, Xiaoqiu Xiao and Qifu Li

-inflammatory state. Zhang X’s group found that Reactive oxygen species-induced TXNIP drives fructose-mediated hepatic inflammation and lipid accumulation through NLRP3 inflammasome activation ( Zhang et al . 2015 ). BPA is considered as a weak environmental

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Weiwei Qin, Wenbao Lu, Hongwei Li, Xiaochen Yuan, Bingwei Li, Qiuju Zhang and Ruijuan Xiu

cells ( Esteve et al . 2002 , Xie et al . 2004 , Liang et al . 2007 ). MMP9 is activated by reactive oxygen species and its expression is likely to be regulated by oxidative stress ( Rajagopalan et al . 1996 , Mori et al . 2004 , Pustovrh et al

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Martha Lappas, Michael Permezel and Gregory E Rice

and tumours (reviewed in Bucciarelli et al. 2002 , Chavakis et al. 2004 , Bierhaus et al. 2005 , Ramasamy et al. 2005 ). Ligand–receptor interaction, through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induces sustained post

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M I Rodriguez, G Escames, L C López, J A García, F Ortiz, A López and D Acuña-Castroviejo

Introduction Oxidative stress could be related to aging through variations in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, ROS elimination, or both. Although antioxidants do not determine the rate of aging, their negative correlation

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Jiyeon Lee, Eunjin Lim, Yumi Kim, Endan Li and Seungjoon Park

activation of microglia and astrocytes in the hippocampus and consequent enhanced release of reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory cytokine may play an important role in KA-induced neurodegenerative processes ( Wang et al . 2005 ). Ghrelin, a novel 28

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Eduardo Esteban-Zubero, Francisco Agustín García-Gil, Laura López-Pingarrón, Moisés Alejandro Alatorre-Jiménez, Pablo Iñigo-Gil, Dun-Xian Tan, José Joaquín García and Russel J Reiter

. 2011 ). These processes are summarized in Fig. 1 . In addition, during vascular reperfusion, ATP metabolites are produced with increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels including superoxide radical (O 2 ·− ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and

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Eun Hee Koh, Ah-Ram Kim, Hyunshik Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Hye-Sun Park, Myoung Seok Ko, Mi-Ok Kim, Hyuk-Joong Kim, Bum Joong Kim, Hyun Ju Yoo, Su Jung Kim, Jin Sun Oh, Chang-Yun Woo, Jung Eun Jang, Jaechan Leem, Myung Hwan Cho and Ki-Up Lee

al . 2013 ). Dysfunctional mitochondria can generate excessive reactive oxygen species ( Chaturvedi & Flint Beal 2013 ) and, conversely, oxidative stress can induce mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes ( Frohnert & Bernlohr 2013 , Hahn et al

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Martha Lappas, Amberlee Mittion and Michael Permezel

of oxidative challenge on other GDM tissues is also yet to be elucidated. Oxidative stress refers to a disturbance in the balance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defences ( West 2000 ). Abnormally high levels of

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Aoife Kiely, Neville H McClenaghan, Peter R Flatt and Philip Newsholme

rate of apoptosis in primary islets was delayed but not prevented ( Liu et al. 2000 ). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may contribute to β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis. The source of ROS may be mitochondrial or the plasma membrane associated