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John-Paul Fuller-Jackson and Belinda A Henry

( Bal et al . 2012 , 2016 ). Over-expression of sarcolipin in skeletal muscle increases oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation, which is associated with resistance to weight gain in mice fed a high fat diet ( Maurya et al . 2015 ). The role of

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Sivaporn Sivasinprasasn, Siripong Palee, Kenneth Chattipakorn, Thidarat Jaiwongkum, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Siriporn C Chattipakorn and Nipon Chattipakorn

I/R injury by improving cardiac functional recovery, restore mitochondrial function and reducing both myocardial infarct size and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production ( Fukumoto et al. 2013 ). Estrogen also helped to improve metabolic

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Sean A Newsom, Jennifer C Richards, Tyler K Johnson, Jessica N Kuzma, Mark C Lonac, Roger J Paxton, Grant M Rynn, Wyatt F Voyles and Christopher Bell

Gurunathan S 2010 PEDF prevents reactive oxygen species generation and retinal endothelial cell damage at high glucose levels . Experimental Eye Research 90 89 – 96 doi:10.1016/j.exer.2009.09.014 . Bell C Seals DR Monroe MB Day DS Shapiro

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Lenka Maletínská, Andrea Popelová, Blanka Železná, Michal Bencze and Jaroslav Kuneš

al . 2003 ). It was shown that at the subcellular level, oxidative damage caused by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in both preclinical AD models and in persons with the disease ( Butterfield

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Rui Song, Xiang-Qun Hu and Lubo Zhang

-dependent protein kinase II and synapsin-I, leading to changes in cytoplasmic calcium concentrations, an increase in mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, and the lysosomal release of cathepsin B ( Sundahl et al. 2015 , Ayrout et al. 2017 ). Both

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Xiwen Xiong, Xupeng Sun, Qingzhi Wang, Xinlai Qian, Yang Zhang, Xiaoyan Pan and X Charlie Dong

-cells ( Kharroubi et al . 2004 ). Several molecular processes associated with lipotoxicity in β-cells have been reported, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), elevated ceramide and impaired

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Jerzy Bełtowski, Grażyna Wójcicka and Hieronim Jakubowski

groups were included to test whether potential protective effect of T0901317 results from amelioration of oxidative stress; since leptin stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by NADPH oxidase and apocynin prevents this effect ( Bełtowski et

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Anne-Marie O'Carroll, Stephen J Lolait, Louise E Harris and George R Pope

part by nitric oxide ( Salcedo et al . 2007 ) and that, in vivo , apelin induces the vasodilation of peripheral resistance vessels via a nitric oxide mechanism ( Japp et al . 2008 ). Involvement of reactive oxygen species in APJ signalling Increased

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Shui-lin Sun and Liang-ming Liu

.1371/journal.pone.0095089 ) 24747943 10.1371/journal.pone.0095089 Li YY Shi ZM Yu XY Feng P Wang XJ 2016 Urotensin II-induced insulin resistence is mediated by NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells . World Journal of

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Isabel Göhring and Hindrik Mulder

. An increased load of glucose and fatty acids on β-cells is toxic. Some of this may be caused by an incapacity of the electron transport chain, resulting in the formation of reactive oxygen species. The results by Han and colleagues suggest that some