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R Hardy and M S Cooper

remodelling. Figure 1 Illustration of how chronic inflammatory disease impacts on bone formation and resorption. A stimulatory effect is indicated by + and an inhibitory effect by −. Systemic inflammation A major advance in our understanding of inflammation

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Richard Eastell

the onset of menarche, the markers all decline despite the high levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Many studies have investigated markers of bone formation and resorption during childhood (Table 1 ). The changes in bone turnover with age

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Thomas Funck-Brentano, Karin H Nilsson, Robert Brommage, Petra Henning, Ulf H Lerner, Antti Koskela, Juha Tuukkanen, Martine Cohen-Solal, Sofia Movérare-Skrtic and Claes Ohlsson

mRNA levels in trabecular bone. (G) Summary diagram of the effects of Porcupine inhibition on cortical or trabecular bone formation and resorption. For each graph, n  = 10 animals per group. Bars represent the mean and error bars represent the 95% CI

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Rana Samadfam, Malaika Awori, Agnes Bénardeau, Frieder Bauss, Elena Sebokova, Matthew Wright and Susan Y Smith

Introduction Bone is a highly specialized and dynamic tissue that undergoes constant remodeling by balancing bone formation and resorption ( Clarke 2008 , Eriksen 2010 ), processes that are regulated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts respectively

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Yan-Hong Bu, Yu-Ling He, Hou-De Zhou, Wei Liu, Dan Peng, Ai-Guo Tang, Ling-Li Tang, Hui Xie, Qiu-Xia Huang, Xiang-Hang Luo and Er-Yuan Liao

developed via different cellular mechanisms: in the case of the Irs1 −/− mice, both bone formation and resorption were decreased ( Ogata et al . 2000 ), whereas in the Irs2 −/− mice, decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption were noted

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E Mrak, I Villa, R Lanzi, M Losa, F Guidobono and A Rubinacci

osteoblastic cells: comparison of the effects of 17-β oestradiol and raloxifene. Journal of Endocrinology 177 423 –433. Ezzat S , Melmed S, Endres D, Eyre DR & Singer FR 1993 Biochemical assessment of bone formation and

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Christianne M A Reijnders, Nathalie Bravenboer, Annechien M Tromp, Marinus A Blankenstein and Paul Lips

. Oxford University Press ., Oxford: Oxford University. Yeh JK , Liu CC & Aloia JF 1993 Effects of exercise and immobilization on bone formation and resorption in young rats. American Journal of Physiology 264 E182 –E189

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A Iida-Klein, S Shou Lu, R Kapadia, M Burkhart, A Moreno, D W Dempster and R Lindsay

the study. Development of better assay systems that can measure bone-formation and -resorption markers in smaller blood samples from live mice at earlier time points will be helpful for future studies. In the current study, endogenous, intact

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Alessandra Bitto, Francesca Polito, Bruce Burnett, Robert Levy, Vincenzo Di Stefano, Mary Ann Armbruster, Herbert Marini, Letteria Minutoli, Domenica Altavilla and Francesco Squadrito

analysis. Commercially available ELISA kits for b-ALP (IDS Plc), CTX (Nordic Bioscience Diagnostics, Beijing, China), and OPG (IDS Ltd) were then used to evaluate sera in duplicate for each animal for bone formation and resorption markers respectively

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Shoshana Yakar, Mary L Bouxsein, Ernesto Canalis, Hui Sun, Vaida Glatt, Caren Gundberg, Pinchas Cohen, David Hwang, Yves Boisclair, Derek LeRoith and Clifford J Rosen

cut on a Microm microtome (Microm, Richards-Allan Scientific, Kalamazoo, MI, USA) and stained with Toluidine Blue. Static parameters of bone formation and resorption were measured at a standardized site in the distal femoral metaphysis using an