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CJ Pemberton, TG Yandle, CJ Charles, MT Rademaker, GD Aitken and EA Espiner

Whereas numerous studies have examined the cardiac tissue content and secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), the response of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in states of experimental cardiac overload is less well documented. Our recent partial cloning of the ovine BNP gene has enabled us to study changes in cardiac tissue concentration, together with tissue and circulating molecular forms of ANP and BNP, in response to cardiac overload induced by rapid ventricular pacing (n = 7) and aortic coarctation (n = 6). In normal sheep, although highest levels of BNP were found in atrial tissue (15-fold those of the ventricle), the BNP/ANP concentration ratio in the ventricles was 10- to 20-fold higher than the ratio calculated for atrial tissue. Compared with normal sheep, significant depletion of both ANP and BNP concentrations within the left ventricle occurred after rapid ventricular pacing. Size exclusion and reverse phase HPLC analysis of atrial and ventricular tissue extracts from normal and overloaded sheep showed a single peak of high molecular weight BNP consistent with the proBNP hormone. In contrast, immunoreactive BNP extracted from plasma drawn from the coronary sinus was all low molecular weight material. Further analysis of plasma BNP using ion exchange HPLC disclosed at least 3 distinct immunoreactive peaks consistent with ovine BNP forms 26-29 amino acid residues in length. These findings show that BNP is stored as the prohormone in sheep cardiac tissues and that complete processing to mature forms occurs at the time of secretion. The capacity to process the prohormone at secretion is not impaired by chronic heart failure.

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Chun-Hsien Chu, Bor-Show Tzang, Li-Mien Chen, Chia-Hua Kuo, Yi-Chang Cheng, Ling-Yun Chen, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Chang-Hai Tsai, Wei-Wen Kuo and Chih-Yang Huang

Introduction Cardiac hypertrophy can roughly be divided into two types: physiological and pathological ( Hunter & Chien 1999 ). In shorter stresses, physiological hypertrophy is an adaptive response to maintain heart function by increasing the size

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Pongpan Tanajak, Siriporn C Chattipakorn and Nipon Chattipakorn

cascade ( Joki et al . 2015 ). Recent studies found that FGF21 protects against isoproterenol (ISO) induced cardiac hypertrophy by activating anti-oxidative pathways ( Planavila et al . 2013 , 2014 ) and promoting FAO ( Planavila et al . 2013 ). FGF21

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Sangeeta Maity, Dipak Kar, Kakali De, Vivek Chander and Arun Bandyopadhyay

, dysfunction ultimately leading to heart failure. Cardiac hypertrophy ensuing hyperthyroidism is due to the hyper-dynamic circulatory system that results from an enhanced metabolic rate, increased blood volume, and decreased peripheral resistance, and all these

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Francisco Altamirano, César Oyarce, Patricio Silva, Marcela Toyos, Carlos Wilson, Sergio Lavandero, Per Uhlén and Manuel Estrada

muscle mass ( Evans 2004 ). Exogenously administrated, elevated testosterone concentrations induce cardiac hypertrophy in vitro ( Marsh et al . 1998 ) and in vivo ( Cabral et al . 1988 , Malhotra et al . 1990 , Nahrendorf et al . 2003 ), but the

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Fausto Bogazzi, Francesco Raggi, Federica Ultimieri, Dania Russo, Antonella Manariti, Aldo D’Alessio, Paolo Viacava, Giovanni Fanelli, Maurizio Gasperi, Luigi Bartalena and Enio Martino

Introduction Cardiac hypertrophy is a common finding of systemic manifestations of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-1) excess in acromegalic patients ( Lie & Grossman 1980 , Saccà et al. 1994 , Melmed 2006

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Chiung-Kuei Huang, Soo Ok Lee, Eugene Chang, Haiyan Pang and Chawnshang Chang

cardiac hypertrophy Cardiac hypertrophy is prevalent in a substantial portion of individuals with hypertension ( Devereux et al . 1987 , Kaplinsky 1994 ) and recognized as an independent risk factor for congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death

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Sheng-Gao Tang, Xiao-Yu Liu, Ji-Ming Ye, Ting-Ting Hu, Ying-Ying Yang, Ting Han and Wen Tan

normal saline solvent) was 8 mg/kg/day (twice daily), which optimized by our researches about STVNa on pressure overload induced cardiac hypertrophy (unpublished) and doses previously shown to be neuroprotective in rats ( Hu et al . 2016 ). Additionally

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Kook Hwan Kim and Myung-Shik Lee

another study showed FGF21 induction in the liver and adipose tissue but not in the ischemic myocardium of mice ( Liu et al . 2013 ). Importantly, stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy was increased in Fgf21 − / − mice, while exogenous FGF21 administration

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Beatriz S Amorim, Cintia B Ueta, Beatriz C G Freitas, Renata J Nassif, Cecília Helena de Azevedo Gouveia, Marcelo A Christoffolete, Anselmo S Moriscot, Carmen Lucia Lancelloti, Flávia Llimona, Hermes Vieira Barbeiro, Heraldo Possolo de Souza, Sergio Catanozi, Marisa Passarelli, Marcelo S Aoki, Antonio C Bianco and Miriam O Ribeiro

%), had less total fat content (−∼70%), less total body water (∼15%; Table 2 ), while at the same time exhibited cardiac hypertrophy (∼23%; Table 1 ). Figure 1 Effects of GC-24 on body weight and composition. Rats were placed on a high-fat diet for 4