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S A Cavigelli, S L Monfort, T K Whitney, Y S Mechref, M Novotny and M K McClintock

several pellets every 1–2 h ( Kishibayashi et al. 1995 ), according the higher temporal resolution needed to detect circadian rhythms and perturbations by a stressor. Fecal corticoid measures are also effective for documenting changes in glucocorticoid

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C E Koch, M S Bartlang, J T Kiehn, L Lucke, N Naujokat, C Helfrich-Förster, S O Reber and H Oster

influence its physiological and psychological effects ( Tsang et al . 2014 , Leliavski et al . 2015 ). In humans, the most frequent and detrimental stress affecting well-being arises from social interactions and existential fears ( Cohen et al . 2007

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Ladan Eshkevari, Eva Permaul and Susan E Mulroney

( Goldstein & Kopin 2007 ). Stressor-specific responses have been linked to numerous stressors that have been divided into four varying categories, which include i) physical stress such as cold and pain, such as the one in our model, ii) psychological stress

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George Fink

, perhaps ironically, in later years with failing health developed an ulcer himself ( Wijdicks 2011 ). Psychological studies using life events as a measure showed that chronic stress in the human is associated with peptic ulceration when the stressor

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Jennifer A Yang, Jessica K Hughes, Ruby A Parra, Katrina M Volk and Alexander S Kauffman

151 2223 – 2232 . ( ) 20211970 10.1210/en.2009-1480 Fenster L Katz DF Wyrobek AJ Pieper C Rempel DM Oman D Swan SH 1997 Effects of psychological stress on human semen quality . Journal of Andrology 18

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Belkis Gizem Uzturk, Shan-xue Jin, Beverly Rubin, Christopher Bartolome and Larry A Feig

Introduction The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis plays a vital role in restoring homeostasis following environmental challenge. Physical or psychological stress results in cortisol production in humans or corticosterone (CORT) in rodents

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Christian Tudorache, Marcel J M Schaaf and Hans Slabbekoorn

Introduction All vertebrates exhibit physiological responses to stress, which are at the basis of appropriate behavioural adaptation. The amplitude and profile of these responses depend on the intensity, duration, controllability and predictability

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S Hesketh, D S Jessop, S Hogg and M S Harbuz

, psychological and physical challenges ( Herman et al. 2002 ). Within the PVN, magnocellular (mPVN) and parvocellular (pPVN) regions ( Swanson & Sawchenko 1983 ) produce peptides involved in the stress response. Parvocellular derived corticotrophin releasing

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A L Markel, O E Redina, M A Gilinsky, G M Dymshits, E V Kalashnikova, Yu V Khvorostova, L A Fedoseeva and G S Jacobson

in the function of these hormonal regulatory mechanisms may be involved in development of different psychological and cardiovascular pathological states ( Chrousos & Gold 1998 , de Kloet et al . 2005 ). Taking into account that stress is the main

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Allison R Foilb, Patina Lui and Russell D Romeo

, following an acute physical or psychological stressor, prepubertal rats exhibit an ACTH and corticosterone (total and free) response that is twice as long (e.g. 40–60 min) as that exhibited by adults ( Goldman et al . 1973 , Vazquez & Akil 1993 , Romeo