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Subhshri Sahu, David Tosh and Anandwardhan A Hardikar

β-cell differentiation ( D'Amour et al . 2006 ); and finally from other tissue sources, particularly those of endodermal origin (e.g. the liver), by transdifferentiation ( Bonner-Weir & Weir 2005 ). Pancreas, liver, and biliary system share a common

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Sandra Fontanière, Bertrand Duvillié, Raphaël Scharfmann, Christine Carreira, Zhao-Qi Wang and Chang-Xian Zhang

development first expresses pancreatic–duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), detected starting from E8.5 in the mouse embryos in early progenitors and restricted to the β-cells at the late developmental stage ( Guz et al . 1995 ). Targeted disruption of the Pdx1 gene

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Kikuko Hotta, Masahiro Hosaka, Atsushi Tanabe and Toshiyuki Takeuchi

Letters 248 133 – 137 . Hosaka M Watanabe T Sakai Y Kato T Takeuchi T 2005 Interaction between secretogranin III and carboxypeptidase E facilitates prohormone sorting within secretory granules . Journal of Cell Science 118 4785

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Xiaoqin Shi, Xinyu Li, Yi Hou, Xuemei Cao, Yuyao Zhang, Heng Wang, Hongyin Wang, Chuan Peng, Jibin Li, Qifu Li, Chaodong Wu and Xiaoqiu Xiao

after refeeding. α-MSH was produced from POMC through a series of enzymatic cleavage including type 1 and type 2 prohormone convertase (PC1 and PC2) and carboxypeptidase E (CPE) ( Nillni 2016 ) ( Fig. 5B ). To test if changes in POMC expression and

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Karen Francis, B Mary Lewis, Peter N Monk and Jack Ham

). Both C3a and C5a are rapidly cleaved by serum carboxypeptidases to release the terminal arginine moiety; these desarginated (dR) have distinctly different patterns of activity from the parent molecules. C5adR has little proinflammatory activity

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K Eerola, P Rinne, A M Penttinen, L Vähätalo, M Savontaus and E Savontaus

calculated automatically using the color_deconvolution/H&E DAB program ( Ruifrok et al . 2003 ). Pixel counts were acquired from both hemispheres separately in four mice per group and from one hemisphere only in three additional mice in the LVi

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Nicole M Templeman, Søs Skovsø, Melissa M Page, Gareth E Lim and James D Johnson

.05.012 ) Jeffrey KD Alejandro EU Luciani DS Kalynyak TB Hu X Li H Lin Y Townsend RR Polonsky KS Johnson JD 2008 Carboxypeptidase E mediates palmitate-induced beta-cell ER stress and apoptosis . PNAS 105 8452 – 8457

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Lovisa Lundholm, Milica Putnik, Michio Otsuki, Sandra Andersson, Claes Ohlsson, Jan-Åke Gustafsson and Karin Dahlman-Wright

carboxylase 1.7   RIKEN cDNA 1110032E23 gene 1.7  Nuclear receptor-binding factor 1 1.7  Ceruloplasmin 1.7  Lysophospholipase 3 1.7  Melanoma antigen, family D, 1 1.7  Lysyl oxidase-like 1.6   Mus musculus , clone IMAGE:5028619, mRNA 1.6  Carboxypeptidase X 1

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Anne-Marie O'Carroll, Stephen J Lolait, Louise E Harris and George R Pope

.biocel.2006.07.001 ) Vickers C Hales P Kaushik V Dick L Gavin J Tang J Godbout K Parsons T Baronas E Hsieh F 2002 Hydrolysis of biological peptides by human angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase . Journal of

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B Gálvez-Prieto, J Bolbrinker, P Stucchi, A I de las Heras, B Merino, S Arribas, M Ruiz-Gayo, M Huber, M Wehland, R Kreutz and M S Fernandez-Alfonso

Hypertension 275 681 – 692 . Tipnis SR Hooper NM Hyde R Karran E Christie G Turner AJ 2000 A human homolog of angiotensin-converting enzyme: cloning and functional expression of a captopril-insensitive carboxypeptidase . Journal of Biological