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Christophe Breton

perinatal nutritional manipulation on offspring hypothalamus–adipose axis. It mainly focuses on studies in rodents. We then summarise the possible developmental programming mechanisms underlying long-lasting perturbation of this axis throughout life

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David O'Regan, Christopher J Kenyon, Jonathan R Seckl and Megan C Holmes

), commonly used in obstetric practice, all lower birth weight. The adult offspring show permanently elevated glucose and insulin levels and hypertension ( Levitt et al . 1996 , Nyirenda et al . 1998 , 2001 , Langdown et al . 2001 , Sugden et al

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Neele S Dellschaft, Marie-Cecile Alexandre-Gouabau, David S Gardner, Jean-Philippe Antignac, Duane H Keisler, Helen Budge, Michael E Symonds and Sylvain P Sebert

maternal diet in pregnancy in rodents ( Desai et al . 2007 ). In these studies, the metabolic and related effects in young adult offspring who were nutritionally manipulated in utero are minimal unless adiposity has been promoted. The extent to which

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Xiaoqin Shi, Xinyu Li, Yi Hou, Xuemei Cao, Yuyao Zhang, Heng Wang, Hongyin Wang, Chuan Peng, Jibin Li, Qifu Li, Chaodong Wu and Xiaoqiu Xiao

offspring. Detrimental impacts of maternal obesity or diabetes during perinatal periods on adiposity and metabolic function in offspring are well established, whereas the contribution of obese or diabetic fathers to these processes is poorly described. In

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Nathanael J Yates, Dijana Tesic, Kirk W Feindel, Jeremy T Smith, Michael W Clarke, Celeste Wale, Rachael C Crew, Michaela D Wharfe, Andrew J O Whitehouse and Caitlin S Wyrwoll

incidence of offspring schizophrenia ( McGrath et al . 2004 , 2010 ). In animal models of early life vitamin D deficiency, there is substantial overlap with changes in brain systems commonly associated with schizophrenia ( Eyles et al . 2009 ), including

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Isabela Teixeira Bonomo, Patricia Cristina Lisboa, Analaura Ribeiro Pereira, Magna Cottini Fonseca Passos and Egberto Gaspar de Moura

the energy expenditure, maintaining the body-weight homeostasis ( Zhang et al. 1994 , Friedman & Halaas 1998 ). Maternal energy malnutrition during lactation programs overweight in the adult offspring, without change in food consumption ( Passos et

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Jie Wei, Xia Sun, Yajie Chen, Yuanyuan Li, Liqiong Song, Zhao Zhou, Bing Xu, Yi Lin and Shunqing Xu

higher dose (5000 μg/kg per day) for altering lipid biosynthesis pathways. Exposure to an adverse environment during critical windows of development will affect the programing of metabolically active tissues in offspring, predisposing individuals to

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Jacqueline M Wallace

their metabolic health in later life ( Gunderson et al. 2009 , Thame et al. 2010 ). For the offspring of adolescent mothers, Demographic Health Surveys reveal evidence of low height or stunting in infancy in 9 of 18 developing countries studied

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Masaki Kakeyama, Hideko Sone and Chiharu Tohyama

in toxicological studies. TCDD is transferred transplacentally and lactationally to developing fetuses or neonates from their mothers and induces developmental impairments in the offspring, such as immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and reproductive

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A P Santos-Silva, E Oliveira, C R Pinheiro, A C Santana, C C Nascimento-Saba, Y Abreu-Villaça, E G Moura and P C Lisboa

observed in nicotine exposure (the main cigarette component)– changes the gene methylation pattern in fetal life are associated with long-term decreases in cortisol ( Wang et al . 2011 ). In rodents, it has been demonstrated that adult offspring from