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Georgia Frangioudakis and Gregory J Cooney

phosphorylation was unchanged ( Kruszynska et al . 2002 ). Variable study conditions used to induce insulin resistance and provide an insulin stimulus may have influenced the reported differences in insulin signalling thought to represent the in vivo effect of

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F Sentinelli, E Filippi, M G Cavallo, S Romeo, M Fanelli and M G Baroni

regulating the transcriptional activity of the nucleus ( Porras et al. 1998 ). To define the role of the G972R variant of IRS-1 gene in insulin signaling, we have transfected this variant in 3T3L1 adipocytes, and examined the proteins involved in

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J Dupont, M Derouet, J Simon and M Taouis

Chronic treatment with corticosterone evokes insulin resistance in chickens, a species which is already resistant to insulin compared with mammals. The in vivo effects of corticosterone on insulin signaling were investigated in chicken liver and thigh muscle in two nutritional states: basal (overnight fasted) and stimulated (30 min refeeding). Corticosterone significantly decreased specific insulin binding in liver and the amount of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and p85 (regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3'-kinase) in both tissues. Insulin receptor (IR) and IRS-1 mRNAs generally varied accordingly. Src homology and collagen protein (Shc) and messenger were not altered. In liver, in the basal state, the tyrosine phosphorylation of IR, IRS-1 and Shc, and the IR-associated PI 3'-kinase activity were largely decreased by corticosterone. Following refeeding the cascade was activated in control but totally inhibited in treated chickens. In muscle, as previously observed, IR and IRS-1 phosphorylation and PI 3'-kinase were not stimulated by refeeding in controls. Only the phosphorylation of Shc was increased. On this background, corticosterone decreased the basal PI 3'-kinase activity and prevented the phosphorylation of Shc in response to refeeding. In conclusion, corticosterone largely impaired insulin signaling in liver and to some extent in muscle. This should contribute to the large impairment of growth. In addition, the present studies further emphasize the peculiarities of insulin signaling in chicken muscle, which needs further investigation.

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R Vinayagamoorthi, Zachariah Bobby and M G Sridhar

( Phillips et al . 1996 , Pan et al . 1997 , Krssak et al . 1999 ). Insulin resistance and several defects in insulin signaling have been reported in rats fed with high-fat diet. The high-fat diet-fed rodent is a model of research interest because it

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Y Furuhata, T Yonezawa, M Takahashi and M Nishihara

GH is known to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism as well as body growth. Controversy exists as to whether GH-deficient adults are indeed insulin sensitive or insulin resistant. In GH-deficient animal models, however, no clear observation indicating insulin resistance has been made, while increased insulin sensitivity has been reported in those animals. We have produced human GH (hGH) transgenic rats characterized by low circulating hGH levels and virtually no endogenous rat GH secretion. Although the body length of the transgenic rat is normal, they develop massive obesity and insulin resistance, indicating that the transgenic rat is a good model for the analysis of insulin resistance under GH deficiency. In this study, we have examined how GH deficiency affects the early steps of insulin signaling in the liver of the transgenic rat. Circulating glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly higher in the transgenic rats than in their littermates. In addition, impaired glucose tolerance was observed in the transgenic rat. The amount of insulin receptor was smaller in the liver of the transgenic rat, resulting in decreased tyrosine phosphorylation in response to insulin stimulation. The amounts of insulin receptor substrate-1 and -2 (IRS-1 and -2) and insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRSs were also smaller in the transgenic rat. Despite the decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation levels of IRSs being mild to moderate (45% for IRS-1 and 16% for IRS-2), associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity was not increased by insulin stimulation at all in the transgenic rat. To elucidate whether this discrepancy resulted from the alteration in binding of the p85 subunit of PI3-kinase to phosphotyrosine residues of the IRSs, we determined the amount of p85 subunit in the immunocomplexes with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Insulin did not affect the amount of p85 subunit associated with phosphotyrosine in the transgenic rats, while it significantly increased in the controls, indicating that alteration may have occurred at the sites of phosphorylated tyrosine residues in IRSs. These results suggest that GH deficiency in the transgenic rat leads to impairment in at least the early steps of insulin signaling in the liver with a resultant defect in glucose metabolism.

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T Grimmsmann, K Levin, MM Meyer, H Beck-Nielsen and HH Klein

We explored whether the delay that occurs between a rise in plasma insulin and the increase of glucose disposal occurs before, at, or downstream of steps that are believed to be part of the insulin signaling cascade. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from 16 nondiabetic subjects before, and 20 and 180 min after plasma insulin levels had been augmented in euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps. Although plasma insulin had reached 98% of its final concentration within 10 min, insulin receptor kinase (IRK) activity, p85 associated with insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, and Thr(308)-protein kinase B (PKB) phosphorylation in the muscle biopsies at 20 min had reached only 60, 48, 34 and 47% respectively of those at 180 min. This suggests a delay before the level of IRK and little or no delay between IRK and PKB activation. The observation that glycogen synthase activity and glucose disposal at 20 min had both only reached 25% of the respective values at 180 min suggests an additional delay downstream of the investigated signaling steps.

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FP Dominici, G Arostegui Diaz, A Bartke, JJ Kopchick and D Turyn

Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is associated with increased sensitivity to insulin, but the molecular mechanisms involved in this association are poorly understood. In the current work, we have examined the consequences of the absence of the biological effects of GH on the first steps of the insulin signaling system in vivo in liver of mice with targeted disruption of the GH receptor/GH binding protein gene (GHR-KO mice). In these animals, circulating insulin concentrations are less than 4 microIU/ml, and glucose concentrations are low, concordant with a state of insulin hypersensitivity. The abundance and tyrosine phosphorylation state of the insulin receptor (IR), the IR substrate-1 (IRS-1), and Shc, the association between IRS-1 and the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, the IRS-1- and the phosphotyrosine-associated PI 3-kinase in liver were examined. We found that, in liver of GHR-KO mice, the lack of GHR and GH eff! ects is associated with: (1) increased IR abundance, (2) increased insulin-stimulated IR tyrosine phosphorylation, (3) normal efficiency of IRS-1 and Shc tyrosine phosphorylation and (4) normal activation of PI 3-kinase by insulin. These alterations could represent an adaptation to the low insulin concentrations displayed by these animals, and may account for their increased insulin sensitivity.

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Ananda L Rodrigues, Érica P G De Souza, Simone V Da Silva, Dayane S B Rodrigues, Aline B Nascimento, Christina Barja-Fidalgo and Marta S De Freitas

adipose tissue is crucial in regulating metabolism beyond its ability to take up glucose. Previous studies have demonstrated that alterations of insulin signaling in fat tissue are associated with impaired glucose tolerance, apparently due to insulin

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Graziela R Stoppa, Maristela Cesquini, Erika A Roman, Patrícia O Prada, Adriana S Torsoni, Talita Romanatto, Mario J Saad, Licio A Velloso and Marcio A Torsoni

insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and epididymal fat pad. Our results show that intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of citrate diminishes the phosphorylation of hypothalamic ACC and AMPK. This effect is accompanied by reductions in food intake and

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L A Wilson, S E Mills, E Finley, E Kilgour, P J Buttery and R G Vernon

Abstract

The molecular basis of the insulin resistance of adipocytes and skeletal muscle during lactation has been investigated in sheep. The number of insulin receptors per adipocyte or per unit membrane protein for skeletal muscle is unchanged by lactation. The ability of insulin to stimulate autophosphorylation of its β-subunit was enhanced in adipocytes but not in skeletal muscle during lactation. This increased autophosphorylation was due, at least in part, to enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation and was found when both solubilised, immunoprecipitated insulin receptors and intact adipocytes were incubated with insulin. The ability of the insulin receptor kinase to phosphorylate other proteins did not appear to be altered by lactation; this was shown with lectin-purified insulin receptors using the artificial substrate, polyglutamyl tyrosine, and in intact adipocytes. Lactation had no effect on the ability of insulin to activate two key downstream kinases, mitogenactivated protein kinase and phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase in adipocytes. The study thus shows that the insulin resistance of lactation in sheep is due to changes downstream of the receptor in both adipocytes and skeletal muscle.

Journal of Endocrinology (1996) 151, 469–480