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María Sol Kruse, María Cristina Vega, Mariana Rey and Héctor Coirini

diabetes and other metabolic diseases in the offspring ( Silverman et al . 1995 , Hillier et al . 2007 ). It is known that GD alters normal fetal development and has a diabetogenic effect on the progeny. We have shown that GD affects both the apoptotic

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J L Nobre, P C Lisboa, A P Santos-Silva, N S Lima, A C Manhães, J F Nogueira-Neto, A Cabanelas, C C Pazos-Moura, E G Moura and E de Oliveira

, leptin and IR, and thyroid hypofunction, which have been previously detected in adult rat offspring whose mothers were exposed to nicotine during lactation. As catecholamine was affected in the suckling pups by maternal nicotine exposure, we also intend

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A P Santos-Silva, E Oliveira, C R Pinheiro, A L Nunes-Freitas, Y Abreu-Villaça, A C Santana, C C Nascimento-Saba, J F Nogueira-Neto, A M Reis, E G Moura and P C Lisboa

the offspring. Lactation is a critical period of life: important cognitive and neurological developments occur in this period. Mother's milk represents the primary source of nutrition in this period ( Golding et al . 1997 ). Nevertheless, there

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Astrid Chamson-Reig, Sandra M Thyssen, Edith Arany and David J Hill

, particularly in female offspring ( Hales et al. 1996 ). A reduction of dietary protein to 8% throughout gestation (low-protein (LP diet)) resulted in a reduced pancreatic weight in the offspring at birth with reduced β cell mass, islet size, and pancreatic

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Yuxun Zhou, Wangsheng Zhu, Zhengxia Guo, Ying Zhao, Zijun Song and Junhua Xiao

timing of puberty onset in offspring cannot be ignored ( Cooper et al. 1996 , Lumey & Stein 1997 , Magnusson et al. 1999 , Adair 2001 ). A maternal diet low in protein administered during pregnancy and lactation delayed the onset of VO, while a

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Elaine de Oliveira, Egberto G Moura, Ana Paula Santos-Silva, Cíntia R Pinheiro, Natalia S Lima, José Firmino Nogueira-Neto, Andre L Nunes-Freitas, Yael Abreu-Villaça, Magna C F Passos and Patrícia C Lisboa

gestational and lactation periods, is responsible for increased adiposity in the offspring ( Von Kries et al . 2002 , Chen & Kelly 2005 , Gao et al . 2005 , Goldani et al . 2007 ). In addition, we have recently shown that lactation is a crucial period

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E Oliveira, E G Moura, A P Santos-Silva, A T S Fagundes, A S Rios, Y Abreu-Villaça, J F Nogueira Neto, M C F Passos and P C Lisboa

results in increased adiposity in the offspring. Only few studies suggest that the first postnatal week is critical for NIC programing of body weight (BW) and body fat distribution. NIC exposure in rats, extending from the gestational period to the 10th

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Thin Xuan Vo, Andrew Revesz, Gurjeev Sohi, Noelle Ma and Daniel B Hardy

symptoms of type 2 diabetes long-term in the offspring. For example, Petrik et al . (1999) demonstrated a low protein diet during pregnancy and weaning induced a decrease in birth weight and disrupted pancreatic β-cell proliferation in the adult

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Tatiane da Silva Faria, Flávia de Bittencourt Brasil, Francisco J B Sampaio and Cristiane da Fonte Ramos

glands of the offspring at puberty ( Brasil et al . 2005 ). The maternal nutritional state during lactation is equivalent and possibly even more important than that during gestation, as evidenced by a study by Léonhardt et al . (2003) , which showed

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JE Eckert, KL Gatford, BG Luxford, RG Campbell and PC Owens

Birth weight is a determinant of blood leptin concentrations in adults. Since nutrition during pregnancy can affect birth weight, the hypothesis that feed intake during pregnancy alters leptin expression in progeny was examined. Leptin mRNA was measured in subcutaneous adipose tissue and leptin protein was measuredin blood plasma from 59 day old female pigs whose mothers were fed at the same restricted rate except that half were permitted to consume 35% more feed during the second quarter of pregnancy. Leptin mRNA abundance in adipose tissue (P=0.015) and plasma leptin concentration (P=0.01) were higher in progeny from mothers provided with more feed. Body weight at birth was negatively correlated with the abundance of leptin mRNA in subcutaneous fat at 59 days of age (P=0.01). This study shows for the first time that maternal nutrition during pregnancy programs postnatal leptin expression in offspring.