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Paul G Farnworth, Yao Wang, Pauline Leembruggen, Guck T Ooi, Craig Harrison, David M Robertson and Jock K Findlay

Introduction Inhibins and activins are members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily of pleiotropic growth and differentiation factors that includes bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) ( Piek et al. 1999 , Chang

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J R V Silva, R van den Hurk, H T A van Tol, B A J Roelen and J R Figueiredo

-B has also been described ( Bristol & Woodruff 2004 ). The activities of activin are modulated by its binding protein follistatin, which was originally purified from mammalian follicular fluid as a FSH inhibitor ( Phillips & de Kretser 1998

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Pulak R Manna, Youngah Jo and Douglas M Stocco

modifications including the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and phosphorylation of proteins ( Cooke et al. 1992 , Saez 1994 , Ascoli et al. 2002 , Stocco et al. 2005 ). The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein regulates a

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Vivian Cristine Calegari, Claudio Cesar Zoppi, Luiz Fernando Rezende, Leonardo Reis Silveira, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro and Antonio Carlos Boschero

that exercise training facilitates this effect by increasing skeletal muscle expression and/or activity of key proteins involved in the insulin signaling, such as glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), insulin receptor, and insulin receptor substrates 1/2, AMP

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Damian G Romero, Ming Yi Zhou, Licy L Yanes, Maria W Plonczynski, Tanganika R Washington, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez and Elise P Gomez-Sanchez

Introduction Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS proteins) comprise a complex and diverse family of proteins that interact with the activated Gα subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins accelerating GTP hydrolysis and

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Jodie M Fleming, Jeffrey A Brandimarto and Wendie S Cohick

is regulated by six high-affinity binding proteins (IGFBP-1 through -6). mRNA for all six IGFBP has been detected in mammary tissue of several species and, similar to IGF-I, their expression patterns and relative levels vary considerably between

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Tracy Xiao Cui, Roland Kwok and Jessica Schwartz

) and an adjacent CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) site, and an activator protein-1 (AP-1) site; these elements can be bound by cognate transcription factors to regulate c- fos transcription in response to GH ( Meyer et al . 1993 , 1994

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J M Fleming, B J Leibowitz, D E Kerr and W S Cohick

regulation occurs are poorly understood. The IGF system is composed of two polypeptide growth factors (IGF-I and -II), two receptors and six high-affinity binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to -6). The temporal expression of ligands, receptors and each of the

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François van Herp, Nick H M van Bakel, Anton J M Coenen, Kjell Sergeant, Bart Devreese and Gerard J M Martens

Introduction In eukaryotic cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus play a pivotal role in the quality control of secretory proteins. The ER contains enzymes and molecular chaperones ensuring that secretory proteins are folded and

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Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Egberto Gaspar de Moura, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Ana Maria Praxedes de Moraes, Luiz Felipe Barella, Ellen Paula Santos da Conceição, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Ananda Malta, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Patrícia Cristina Lisboa and Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias

obesity ( Jones 2010 b , Hamilton et al . 2011 ). Cortisol/corticosterone excess also contributes to insulin resistance and visceral obesity ( de Guia & Herzig 2015 ). A maternal low-protein diet is also associated with hypotestosteronemia ( Chamson