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Fang Cai, Armen V Gyulkhandanyan, Michael B Wheeler and Denise D Belsham

Introduction The hypothalamus is critical for the regulation of homeostatic processes, such as feeding and energy expenditure ( Schwartz et al. 2000 ). Within the hypothalamus, energy homeostasis is controlled by two opposing

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K Eerola, S Virtanen, L Vähätalo, L Ailanen, M Cai, V Hruby, M Savontaus and E Savontaus

-MSH-treated mice. The Western diet attenuated the initial changes in body composition in the γ-MSH-treated mice, suggesting that the effect of MC3R stimulation by ARC neurons is not sufficient to affect the regulatory mechanisms governing body energy homeostasis

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Sharon H Chou and Christos Mantzoros

phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) by leptin is critical for body energy homeostasis, it is not critical for reproductive function. The selective deletion of leptin-induced STAT3 signaling in female mice results in

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Cintia B Ueta, Gustavo W Fernandes, Luciane P Capelo, Tatiane L Fonseca, Flávia D'Angelo Maculan, Cecilia H A Gouveia, Patrícia C Brum, Marcelo A Christoffolete, Marcelo S Aoki, Carmen L Lancellotti, Brian Kim, Antonio C Bianco and Miriam O Ribeiro

( Collins & Surwit 2001 ). The critical role played by these receptors in BAT function and overall energy homeostasis is illustrated by the fact that mice with combined targeted disruption of the three β 1 , β 2 , and β 3 adrenergic receptors (TKO mice

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Greisa Vila, Michaela Riedl, Michael Resl, Aart Jan van der Lely, Leo J Hofland, Martin Clodi and Anton Luger

nerval components ( Hosoda & Kangawa 2008 , Maier et al . 2008 ). This axis controls energy homeostasis and was recently found to be involved in the modulation of stress responses ( Murphy et al . 2006 , Lutter et al . 2008 ). The most important

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Tracy Josephs, Hayley Waugh, Ilona Kokay, David Grattan and Mary Thompson

Introduction Pregnancy and lactation are physiological situations where major changes in energy homeostasis occur to meet the nutrient demands of fetal growth and milk production. The energy needs are met by increased food intake

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Johannes Klein, Sören Westphal, Daniel Kraus, Britta Meier, Nina Perwitz, Volker Ott, Mathias Fasshauer and H Harald Klein

appreciation of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ that is pivotal for the systemic regulation of insulin action and energy homeostasis ( Rajala & Scherer 2003 ). Direct interactions of metformin with adipocyte signalling and endocrine function may thus be

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N de Pedro, R Martínez-Álvarez and M J Delgado

and hormones, and the hypothalamus plays an important role in such networks, which regulate energy homeostasis (de Pedro & Björnnsson 2001, Volkoff et al. 2005 ). In mammals, it has been established that leptin most likely mediates its action on

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Galya Vassileva, Weiwen Hu, Lizbeth Hoos, Glen Tetzloff, Shijun Yang, Li Liu, Ling Kang, Harry R Davis, Joseph A Hedrick, Hong Lan, Timothy Kowalski and Eric L Gustafson

STC-1 cells ( Katsuma et al . 2005 ). BAs are known regulators of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism that have been reported to inhibit diet-induced obesity and prevent the development of insulin resistance ( Ikemoto et al . 1997 , Watanabe

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Silvana Y Romero-Zerbo, Alex Rafacho, Adenis Díaz-Arteaga, Juan Suárez, Ivan Quesada, Mónica Imbernon, Ruth A Ross, Carlos Dieguez, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Rubén Nogueiras, Ángel Nadal and Francisco J Bermúdez-Silva

areas such as the hypothalamus and also in several peripheral tissues involved in energy homeostasis ( Ryberg et al . 2007 ). Recent data have shown that the GPR55 receptor has a role in mechanical hyperalgesia associated with inflammatory and