2004 ). β-Catenin, a transcription cofactor that acts together with T cell factor/lymphoid enhancing factor (TCF/LEF) to induce target gene expression ( Cadigan & Nusse 1997 ), is a structural adaptor protein linking cadherins to the actin cytoskeleton
Won Bae Kim, Christopher J Lewis, Kelly D McCall, Ramiro Malgor, Aimee D Kohn, Randall T Moon and Leonard D Kohn
Guohong Liu, Mirta Grifman, James Macdonald, Peter Moller, Flossie Wong-Staal and Qi-Xiang Li
and type II diabetes are associated with lower levels of plasma adiponectin. Weight loss and therapy with thiazolidinediones, the drugs that enhance insulin sensitivity through stimulation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ
Akiko Katoh, Hiroaki Fujihara, Toyoaki Ohbuchi, Tatsushi Onaka, W Scott Young III, Govindan Dayanithi, Yuka Yamasaki, Mitsuhiro Kawata, Hitoshi Suzuki, Hiroki Otsubo, Hideaki Suzuki, David Murphy and Yoichi Ueta
generation and characterisation of rats that faithfully express an AVP-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) fusion transgene ( Avp – eGfp ; Ueta et al . 2005 ). In these rats, eGFP fluorescence was observed in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), the
Alena Nareika, Yeong-Bin Im, Bryan A Game, Elizabeth H Slate, John J Sanders, Steven D London, Maria F Lopes-Virella and Yan Huang
increased generation of reactive oxygen species by polymorphonuclear leucocytes ( Mohanty et al . 2000 , Aljada et al . 2004 , 2006 ). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that increased glucose level was associated with an enhanced transcriptional
Yen-Shen Lu, Pei-Yen Yeh, Shuang-En Chuang, Ming Gao, Min-Liang Kuo and Ann-Lii Cheng
-Bax (sc-493), anti-Bcl-2 (sc-492), anti-Bcl-X L (sc-1041), anti-p21 Cip1 (sc-817), anti-MKP-1 (sc-1102), anti-phospho-ERK (sc-7383), and anti-GR (sc-1003). Signals were visualized with an enhanced chemiluminescence kit (Amersham) followed by exposure to
Nasser Al-Shanti and Claire E Stewart
, Moon et al . 2007 ), we therefore hypothesise that administration of PD98059 to C2 skeletal myoblast cultures may enhance cell differentiation relative to controls. The purpose of the present study described herein was to examine a potential positive
Sachie Asamizu, Masaharu Urakaze, Chikaaki Kobashi, Manabu Ishiki, Amal Khalifa Norel Din, Shiho Fujisaka, Yukiko Kanatani, Agussalim Bukahari, Satoko Senda, Hikari Suzuki, Yuh Yamazaki, Minoru Iwata, Isao Usui, Katsuya Yamazaki, Hiroshi Ogawa, Masashi Kobayashi and Kazuyuki Tobe
production and examine the effect of Ang II co-stimulation with TNF-α on MCP-1 production in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes because preadipocytes are a major source of MCP-1 production in adipose tissue. We demonstrate herein, for the first time that Ang II enhances
Tsuneo Kobayashi, Takayuki Matsumoto and Katsuo Kamata
affect smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation ( Bornfeldt et al. 1992 , Duan et al. 2000 , Delafontaine et al. 2004 ). Moreover, chronic overexpression of IGF-I in transgenic mice results in enhanced aortic and cardiac contractility ( Zhao
L Ferasin, G Gabai, J Beattie, G Bono and A T Holder
The ability of site-specific antipeptide antisera to enhance the biological activity of ovine FSH (oFSH) in vivo was investigated using hypopituitary Snell dwarf mice. These animals were shown to respond to increasing doses of oFSH (3·3–90 μg/day), administered in two daily injections over a 5-day treatment period, in a highly significant dose-dependent fashion. The responses measured were increases in uterine weight, ovarian weight and the index of keratinisation in vaginal smears. The dose-dependent response to oFSH confirmed the suitability of this animal model for these investigations and suggested the suboptimal dose of oFSH (20 μg/day) for use in enhancement studies.
Five peptides derived from the β subunit of bovine FSH (bFSH) (A, residues 33–47; B, 40–51; C, 69–80; D, 83–94; E, 27–39) were used to generate polyclonal antipeptide antisera. Of these peptides, only A and B produced an antiserum (raised in sheep) capable of recognising 125I-bFSH in a liquid phase RIA. Antisera prepared against peptide A or peptide B were found to significantly enhance the biological activity of 20 μg oFSH/day over a 5-day treatment period. The response to antipeptide antisera alone did not differ significantly from that observed in PBS-injected control animals, neither did the response to FSH alone differ from that observed in animals treated with FSH plus preimmune serum. Thus the enhanced responses are dependent upon the presence of FSH plus antipeptide antiserum. Peptides A and B are located in a region thought to be involved in receptor recognition, this may have implications for the mechanism underlying this phenomenon and/or the structure/function relationships of FSH.
That FSH-enhancing antisera can be generated by immunisation of animals with peptides A and B suggests that it may be possible to develop these peptides as vaccines capable of increasing reproductive performance, such as ovulation rate. The high degree of sequence homology between ovine, bovine and porcine (and to a lesser extent human and equine) FSH in the region covered by peptides A and B suggests that these peptides could also be used to promote and regulate ovarian function in all of these species.
Journal of Endocrinology (1997) 152, 355–363
A. T. Holder, R. Aston, M.A. Preece and J. Ivanyi
This work demonstrates that complexing hGH with monoclonal antibody EBl (MAB-EBl) can produce a striking potentiation of the somatogenic actions of hGH in vivo in Snell dwarf mice. In short-term experiments significant increases in cartilage metabolism and body weight were noted; these responses were dose-dependent for both MAB-EBl and hGH concentration. Increased growth was also observed in long-term experiments. In marmosets where MAB-EBl cross-reacts with endogenous GH, MAB-EBl alone enhanced the actions of endogenous GH. A new perspective may be necessary to incorporate these results into the current concept of antibody action.