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Claes Ohlsson, Petra Henning, Karin H Nilsson, Jianyao Wu, Karin L Gustafsson, Klara Sjögren, Anna Törnqvist, Antti Koskela, Fu-Ping Zhang, Marie K Lagerquist, Matti Poutanen, Juha Tuukkanen, Ulf H Lerner and Sofia Movérare-Skrtic

Introduction Osteoporosis affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and fragility fractures cause enormous problems particularly for postmenopausal women and older men ( Baron & Hesse 2012 ). Cortical bone is a key determinant of bone

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Robert T Chatterton Jr, JoAnne Zujewski, Esnar T Mateo, Jennifer Eng-Wong and V Craig Jordan

Introduction Raloxifene is a selective oestrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that is used for the treatment and the prevention of osteoporosis ( Jordan et al. 2001 ). SERMs are nonsteroidal compounds that interact with the oestrogen

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Guillaume Mabilleau, Marie Pereira and Chantal Chenu

pre-clinical data obtained in animal models. Several animal models of either osteoporosis or T2DM have been used to assess the effects of two GLP-1RAs, exenatide and liraglutide, on bone quality and strength. However, data concerning potential bone

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Nicholaos I Papachristou, Harry C Blair, Kyriakos E Kypreos and Dionysios J Papachristou

, including osteoporosis. Figure 1 Diagram depicting the growth factors, cytokines and receptors that are involved in the ‘coupling’ between osteoblasts and osteoclasts and the regulation of osteoclast maturation and bone resorption. These phenomena

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Mei-Fway Iu, Hiroshi Kaji, Hideaki Sowa, Junko Naito, Toshitsugu Sugimoto and Kazuo Chihara

patients with Cushing’s syndrome and 30–50% of patients taking long-term GC have atraumatic fracture due to osteopenia ( Ross & Linch 1982 , Adinoff & Hollister 1983 ). Although GC-induced osteoporosis (GIO) is frequently seen in patients with GC excess

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Abhaya Krishnan and Sridhar Muthusami

include obesity, lack of physical exercise, family history and diabetes mellitus. PCOS women have higher risk of developing insulin resistance, hypertension, psychiatric disorders, dyslipidemia, diabetes, cancer and osteoporosis. This review is focused

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Marina Komrakova, Stephan Sehmisch, Mohammad Tezval, Ulrich Schmelz, Holm Frauendorf, Thomas Grueger, Thomas Wessling, Carolin Klein, Miriam Birth, Klaus M Stuermer and Ewa K Stuermer

Introduction Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and deterioration in bone structure with a consequent increase in bone fragility and risk of fracture. The bone loss is most related to estrogen deficiency and age- and

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H H Farman, K L Gustafsson, P Henning, L Grahnemo, V Lionikaite, S Movérare-Skrtic, J Wu, H Ryberg, A Koskela, J Tuukkanen, E R Levin, C Ohlsson and M K Lagerquist

in order to find bone-specific treatments for male osteoporosis. Estrogen receptors (ERs) mediate the bone-protective effects of estrogens, and we and others have demonstrated that ERα is the main mediator of these protective effects on the skeleton

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M M Conradie, H de Wet, D D R Kotze, J M Burrin, F S Hough and P A Hulley

Introduction Bone loss and fractures resulting from glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is the most prevalent form of secondary osteoporosis ( Van Staa et al . 2000 , Angeli et al . 2006 ). Skeletal health and repair depends on

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K Boelaert and J A Franklyn

time. The influence of thyroid hormone excess on bone metabolism has led to extensive investigation of osteoporosis risk in those with overt and subclinical thyrotoxicosis. The effects of thyroid hormone on the central nervous system (CNS) are now well