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Márcio Pereira-da-Silva, Cláudio T De Souza, Alessandra L Gasparetti, Mário J A Saad and Lício A Velloso

insulin resistance ( Ludwig et al. 2001 ). According to this study, these transgenic mice present a significantly higher blood glucose level during an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (ipGTT), which is accompanied by a markedly increased fed blood

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Nicole M Templeman, Søs Skovsø, Melissa M Page, Gareth E Lim and James D Johnson

response to nutrients in the blood, including glucose, and undergo sustained basal alterations in response to chronic demand ( Werner et al . 2008 , Fu et al . 2013 ). The acute increase in circulating insulin induced by food intake promotes nutrient

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M Schütt, J Zhou, M Meier and H H Klein

-cell line and human islets of Langerhans. FASEB Journal 17 1340 –1342. Hruz PW , Murata H, Qiu H & Mueckler M 2002 Indinavir induces acute and reversible peripheral insulin resistance in rats. Diabetes 51 937 –942

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H Takahashi, Y Kurose, S Kobayashi, T Sugino, M Kojima, K Kangawa, Y Hasegawa and Y Terashima

directly acting on peripheral tissues. Furthermore, acute and chronic elevations of blood GH levels cause insulin resistance ( Rizza et al. 1982 , Moller et al. 1989 , Hettiarachchi et al. 1996 , Kim et al. 1999 ). Therefore, ghrelin

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Shaodong Guo

and triggers metabolic inflammation, a low-grade and chronic inflammatory response ( Samuel et al . 2010 , Samuel & Shulman 2012 ). An acute lipid or fatty acid infusion or chronic HFD directly induces insulin resistance in mice via the activation of

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Bo Ahrén, Maria Sörhede Winzell and Giovanni Pacini

to oral glucose ( Nauck et al . 1986 ). Similarly, also in pigs, the incretin effect contributes to a large degree of the insulin response to oral glucose ( Lindkaer-Jensen et al . 1975 ). Insulin resistance upregulates insulin secretion, and if

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Maristela Mitiko Okamoto, Gabriel Forato Anhê, Robinson Sabino-Silva, Milano Felipe dos Santos Ferreira Marques, Helayne Soares Freitas, Rosana Cristina Tieko Mori, Karla Fabiana S Melo and Ubiratan Fabres Machado

resistance is involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; Björnholm & Zierath 2005 ). In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), apart from its well-known pathogenesis, insulin resistance has also been described in both undertreated

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P Brandimarti, J M Costa-Júnior, S M Ferreira, A O Protzek, G J Santos, E M Carneiro, A C Boschero and L F Rezende

main elements for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, the alterations in insulin resistance, secretion, and clearance vary according to disease development. At onset of type 2 diabetes, there is an increase in insulin resistance, coupled with increased

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Neehar Gupta, Edward Park, Harmanjit Sandhu, Tracy Goh, Vaja Tchipashvili and Adria Giacca

. One potential site of the indirect suppression of GP is the brain ( Obici et al. 2002 ), although the central action of insulin to suppress GP acutely has been questioned in the dog ( Edgerton et al. 2006 ). The present results show that

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Sandra Pereira, Anu Shah, I George Fantus, Jamie W Joseph and Adria Giacca

810 – 816 . Barazzoni R Zanetti M Cappellari GG Semolic A Boschelle M Codarin E Pirulli A Cattin L Guarnieri G 2012 Fatty acids acutely enhance insulin-induced oxidative stress and cause insulin resistance by increasing