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Nicholas J Bernier, Sarah L Alderman and Erin N Bristow

stressor. So while isolation may not pose a chronic threat to homeostasis and HPI axis activity habituation maybe relatively rapid, excitatory pathways involved in relaying the perceived psychological threat of the new environment maybe involved in keeping

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Stephen G Matthews and Patrick O McGowan

. Developmental programming of the HPA axis and behaviour The HPA axis directs neuroendocrine homeostasis and the response to stress through a series of direct influences and feedback responses in the brain and periphery. Both psychological (e.g. anxiety and

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M J F Newson, G R Pope, E M Roberts, S J Lolait and A-M O'Carroll

mRNA and I 125 [Pyr 1 ]apelin-13-binding sites throughout the mouse adrenal cortex, with little to no presence in the medulla ( Pope et al . 2012 ). We also investigated the effect of a metabolic stress (insulin-induced hypoglycaemia) and a physical/psychological

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Takahiro Nemoto, Yoshihiko Kakinuma and Tamotsu Shibasaki

psychological stress in rats . Psychoneuroendocrinology 34 226 – 237 . ( doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.09.003 ) Kino T Hurt DE Ichijo T Nader N Chrousos GP 2010 Noncoding RNA gas5 is a growth arrest- and starvation-associated repressor of the

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Keiko Nakahara, Rieko Okame, Tetsuro Katayama, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa and Noboru Murakami

responses. Plasma ghrelin levels decreased significantly from 20 min onward during stress treatments. On the other hand, acute psychological stress raises them ( Kristenssson et al . 2006 ). In addition, Zimmermann et al . (2007) have reported that

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Dóra Zelena, Ágnes Domokos, Subodh Kumar Jain, Ryan Jankord and Ludmila Filaretova

systemic and psychological stressors), and the requirement for AVP was not consistent within a given stressor category. In regards to HPA activity, our results show that changes in plasma corticosterone did not consistently mirror changes in ACTH, except

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Bruce S McEwen, Jason D Gray and Carla Nasca

neurobiology of stress and adaptation: central role of the brain. Physiological Reviews 87 873–904. Copyright 2007 the American Physiological Society. Within this broader view of neuroendocrinology in relation to brain–body communication, we modified the

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Aowen Zhuang and Josephine M Forbes

develop a detrimental condition referred to as ER stress. The principles of the UPR are now relatively well defined ( Ron & Walter 2007 , Hasnain et al . 2012 , Hetz 2012 ), and the mechanisms of the signal transducers involved in the activation of this

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Saadia Basharat, Jennifer A Parker, Kevin G Murphy, Stephen R Bloom, Julia C Buckingham and Christopher D John

psychological stress ( Connor & Leonard 1998 ), ultimately activate the HPA axis via a convergence at the hypothalamus to precipitate the CRH–ACTH–glucocorticoid cascade, there is surprisingly little overlap in the sets of genes within the brain that are induced

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Ellen Kanitz, Winfried Otten and Margret Tuchscherer

M , Johnson E, Lang MA, Malamas M & Marselos M 2000 Noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin: different effects of psychological stress on brain biogenic amines in mice and rats. Pharmacological Research 41 341 –346