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L J W Jack, S Kahl, D L St Germain and A V Capuco

Abstract

Thyroxine 5′-deiodinase (5′D) catalyses deiodination of the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to the metabolically active hormone 3,5,3′-tri-iodothyronine (T3). Previously, it has been demonstrated that rat mammary gland expresses a 5′D with enzymatic properties equivalent to those of the type I enzyme (5′D-I) found in rat liver and kidney. Using complementary DNA (cDNA) for rat hepatic 5′D-I, we have examined expression of 5′D-I messenger RNA (mRNA) in liver, and mammary gland from virgin and lactating rats, and in seven other tissues from virgin rats. 5′D-I mRNA could not be detected in mammary gland either by Northern blotting or by the more sensitive technique of reverse transcribing mRNA and then amplifying the cDNA by polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). Analysis of the seven tissues from virgin rats by RT-PCR showed 5′D-I amplicons in liver, kidney and thyroid. No amplicons were detected in adrenal gland, cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle or spleen. In addition, the effect of lactation intensity on circulating thyroid hormones, hepatic and mammary gland 5′D activity, and hepatic 5′D-I mRNA levels was examined. A strong inverse relationship was noted between increased lactation intensity (suckling burden) and circulating T4 and T3, hepatic 5′D-I activity and hepatic 5′D-I mRNA levels. Mammary gland 5′D activity was positively correlated to lactation intensity. The data presented strongly suggest that the 5′D activity expressed in lactating mammary gland is encoded by a mRNA different from the 5′D-I message found in rat liver, kidney and thyroid gland, and may help explain the differential regulation of 5′D-I activity in these organs during lactation. In addition, hepatic 5′D-I activity was found to be correlated with the concentration of 5′D-I mRNA, suggesting that regulation is pretranslational. Results are consistent with a previously suggested involvement of 5′D in establishing metabolic adaptations to support lactation.

Journal of Endocrinology (1994) 142, 205–215

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C Aceves and R Rojas-Huidobro

Previous works led us to propose that peripheral iodothyronine deiodination is mainly regulated by the reciprocal interaction between the thyroid and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). In this study, we analyzed the role suckling exerts, through SNS activation, upon deiodination of thyronines in liver, heart, brown adipose tissue and mammary gland during lactation. Our results showed that resuckling causes a concurrent stimulatory response on deiodinase type 1 (D1) in heart and mammary gland, but not in liver and brown adipose tissue. The stimulatory response was mimicked by norepinephrine and by the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, through the overexpression of the large form of D1 mRNA. These results suggested that, during lactation, peripheral thyronine deiodination is co-ordinated by the SNS, and suckling is a major modulatory influence.

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PC Lisboa, MC Passos, SC Dutra, RS Santos, IT Bonomo, AP Cabanelas, CC Pazos-Moura and EG Moura

We have shown that protein restriction during lactation is associated with higher levels of serum and milk tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) with lower serum thyroxine (T(4)), suggesting an increased T(4) to T(3) conversion. To investigate this hypothesis, the activity of type 1 (D1) and/or type 2 (D2) iodothyronine deiodinases was evaluated on days 4, 12 and 21 of lactation in several tIssues of dams fed an 8% protein-restricted (PR) diet and controls fed a 23% protein diet. Serum TSH, T(3) and T(4) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Deiodinase activity was determined by the release of (125)I from (125)I-reverse T(3), under specific conditions for D1 or D2. PR dams had a transitory reduction in liver D1 activity (P<0.05) on day 12, and a small increase in thyroid D1 on day 12 followed by a small decrease on day 21. However, thyroid D2 activity was higher than controls (P<0.05) during the whole of the lactation period. Mammary gland D1 and D2 activities were lower on day 4 of lactation in PR dams (P<0.05), and D2 was higher on day 21 (P<0.05). Potentially, a lower conversion of T(3) to di-iodothyronine in the mammary glands of PR dams at the beginning of lactation may serve to provide more T(3) through the milk. Brown adipose tIssue (BAT) D2 activity was higher (P<0.05) in PR dams during all periods of lactation. PR dams showed higher skeletal muscle D1 activity only at the end of lactation, but no changes in D2 activity. Higher pituitary D1 and D2 activities in the PR group (P<0.05) at the end of lactation could have contributed to the lower serum TSH. These data suggest that the higher thyroid and BAT D2 activity during the whole of lactation and skeletal muscle D1 activity at the end of lactation may contribute to the higher serum T(3) in PR dams.

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C Aceves, C Escobar, R Rojas-Huidobro, O Vazquez-Martinez, T Martinez-Merlos, R Aguilar-Roblero and M Diaz-Munoz

Restricted feeding schedules (RFSs) produce a behavioral activation known as anticipatory activity, which is a manifestation of a food-entrained oscillator (FEO). The liver could be playing a role in the physiology of FEO. Here we demonstrate that the activity of liver selenoenzyme deiodinase type 1 (D1), which transforms thyroxine into triiodothyronine (T3), decreases before food access and increases after food presentation in RFSs. These changes in D1 activity were not due to variations in D1 mRNA. In contrast, a 24 h fast promoted a decrease in both D1 activity and mRNA content. The adjustment in hepatic D1 activity was accompanied by a similar modification in T3-dependent malic enzyme, suggesting that the local generation of T3 has physiological implications in the liver. These results support the notion that the physiological state of rats under RFSs is unique and distinct from rats fed freely or fasted for 24 h. Data also suggest a possible role of hepatic D1 enzyme in coordinating the homeorhetic state of the liver when this organ participates in FEO expression.

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N. Boye, H. Frøkiaer, K. Kaltoftt and P. Laurberg

ABSTRACT

Characterization of iodothyronine-deiodinating enzymes has been difficult due to loss of enzyme activity during purification. To obtain a new tool for studying these enzymes we investigated the possibility of developing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against iodothyronine-5′-deiodinase (5′-D). Two specific and sensitive solid-phase microassays were developed for screening hybridoma supernatants for the presence of antibodies inhibiting rat kidney 5′-D. and antibodies binding to but not inhibiting the enzyme.

BALB/c mice were immunized with a 3-((3-cholamidopropyl) -dimethylammonio) -1- propanesulphonate (CHAPS)-solubilized 5′-D-rich membrane preparation from rat kidney cortical tissue. Spleen cells were fused with NSI-Ag 4/1 mouse myeloma cells by means of polyethylene glycol.

Two hybridoma cell lines (AF5 and BE8) secreting MAbs specifically binding to without inhibiting 5′-D were produced. The AF5 antibody was of the IgG2a subclass and the BE8 antibody of the IgG2b subclass. Binding of one of the antibodies to the enzyme inhibited binding of the other in both an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a specific enzymebinding assay. CHAPS-solubilized kidney microsomal fraction was chromatographed on a Sepharose 6B column. Elution profiles of 5′-D activity and MAb-binding antigens, as measured by ELISA with both AF5 and BE8, were identical.

Monoclonal antibodies should be valuable probes in the further elucidation of the nature of the iodothyronine-deiodinating activity in various tissues.

J. Endocr. (1988) 118, 439–445

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S. G. Beech, S. W. Walker, A. M. Dorrance, J. R. Arthur, F. Nicol, D. Lee and G. J. Beckett

ABSTRACT

We have studied the origin of tri-iodothyronine (T3) secreted by human and sheep thyrocytes in primary culture and also the expression of type-I thyroidal iodothyronine deiodinase (ID-I) in the thyroid and liver of man and various other animals. Inhibitors of ID-I reduced T3 secretion from human but not sheep thyrocytes. In contrast, inhibitors of de-novo thyroid hormone synthesis reduced both thyroxine (T4) and T3 production in sheep thyrocytes, but had no effect on the T3 secreted by human thyrocytes. Human thyrocytes did not produce T4 under the culture conditions used, although some endogenous T4 was present in the cells following their isolation. Although thyrotrophin (TSH) stimulated T3 production in both human and sheep thyrocytes, iodine in the form of potassium iodide was only essential for T3 and T4 production by the sheep cells. Although 125I from Na125I was incorporated into T3 and T4 in TSH-stimulated sheep thyrocytes, no 125I incorporation into T3 or T4 was detected in TSH-stimulated human thyrocytes. Using activity measurements and affinity labelling, ID-I was present in the livers of all species studied, but ID-I could not be detected in thyroid tissue from cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, rabbits, deer or llamas. In contrast, thyroid tissue from man, mice, guinea-pigs and rats had significant ID-I activity and expressed an affinity-labelled protein with a molecular mass of approximately 28·1 kDa on SDS-PAGE.

These data show that under the culture conditions used, sheep thyrocytes produced T3 by de-novo synthesis, whilst human thyrocytes produced T3 by deiodination of endogenous T4. We conclude that thyroidal ID-I shows marked species difference in its expression and that, in those species which express the enzyme (man, mice, guinea-pigs and rats, in this study), it appears that it may make an important contribution to thyroidal T3 production.

Journal of Endocrinology (1993) 136, 361–370

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Jonathan D Johnston and Debra J Skene

(reviewed in Follett & Nicholls (1984) ). A more recent breakthrough in the understanding of seasonal physiology also came from studies of birds, specifically the Japanese quail. This research revealed that photoperiod regulates expression of deiodinase

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A Boelen, J Kwakkel, W M Wiersinga and E Fliers

( Chopra et al. 1987 , Woloski & Jamieson 1987 ) and we have shown recently that besides decreased serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) levels liver type 1 deiodinase (D1) did not change and type 3 deiodinase (D3) activity increased in

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P Molinero, C Osuna and J M Guerrero

Abstract

In the present study we have shown type II thyroxine 5′-deiodination (5′D) in the rat thymus. The enzyme activity was identified in crude extract homogenates by measuring the 125I released from [3′,5′-125I]thyroxine which is used as a substrate of the reaction. The release of 125I is dependent on protein tissue concentration, time, temperature and pH, and is saturable by increasing the substrate concentration, indicating its enzymatic nature. Characteristics of the enzyme activity also include a low Km (9·1 nm), its dependence on dithiothreitol, and its inhibition by iopanoic acid, but not by propylthiouracil. Experiments to investigate the cellular location of the enzyme in the thymic gland showed that the enzyme is present in both stromal cells and thymocytes. At the subcellular level, 5′D activity was associated with cellular membranes. Thyroid status appears to regulate 5′D activity in rat thymus. Hypothyroidism caused an increase in thymus 5′D activity. The Km value remained unchanged (9·1 vs 10·5 nm) during hypothyroidism, but Vmax increased significantly from 17·7 fmol/mg protein per h in euthyroid rats to 53·5 fmol/mg protein per h in hypothyroid rats. 5′D activity was also modulated by catecholamines through β-adrenergic receptors because isoproterenol, but not methoxamine or clonidine, could activate the enzyme. Because these characteristics define the type II iodothyronine-deiodinating pathway in other tissues, we suggest that the rat thymus also shares this pathway.

Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 146, 105–111

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S. K. Lam and S. Harvey

ABSTRACT

In-vitro studies with chicken liver homogenates demonstrate that the conversion of thyroxine (T4) to tri-iodothyronine (T3) is dependent upon tissue concentration, time of incubation, pH, temperature, the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT) and the concentration of substrate (T4), and is heat-labile. The generation of T3 is inhibited by iopanoic acid and 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil. The kinetics of conversion of T4 to T3, determined by Lineweaver–Burke analysis, indicated an apparent Michaelis–Menten constant (K m) of 1·16 μmol/l with a maximum velocity (Vmax) of 44·57 pmol T3 generated/mg protein per min from T4. Dithiothreitol appears to behave as a co-substrate for this system with an apparent K m of 98·5 μmol/l and a Vmax of 1·41 pmol T3 generated/mg protein per min at a T4 concentration of 5 μmol/l. These data suggest that the conversion of T4 to T3 in fowl proceeds by means of an enzymatic system, probably 5′-monodeiodinase, and is responsible for maintaining T3 levels in vivo.

J. Endocr. (1986) 110, 441–446.