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L. Cancela, P. J. Marie, N. Le Boulch and L. Miravet

ABSTRACT

Mineral, hormonal and skeletal changes were determined in vitamin D-deficient (−D) and vitamin Dreplete (+D) mother rats and in their litters on day 20 of lactation. These results were compared with those obtained in −D mothers and pups, after giving the mothers an oral supplement (10 i.u. vitamin D3/day) during the period of lactation (20 days). Compared to +D animals, both −D lactating mothers and their pups exhibited extremely low plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3), diminished 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and increased levels of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH). Vitamin D-deficient mothers also had higher levels of calcitonin and lower levels of prolactin than +D mothers. All − D animals (mothers and pups) showed increased osteoclastic bone resorption and severe osteomalacia as shown by decreased bone ash, decreased calcification rate and increased endosteal osteoid surface, volume and thickness. In mothers treated with vitamin D3 during lactation, nearly all the plasma variables measured, as well as bone histomorphometric features, were normal. In contrast, their pups still showed rickets and osteomalacia, despite normal levels of 25-OH-D3 and calcium in the plasma. These pups had raised plasma levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 and iPTH associated with persistent stimulation of bone resorption. This study showed that (1) severe vitamin D deficiency in lactating rats produced marked osteomalacia and secondary hyperparathyroidism in both mothers and pups, and (2) vitamin D treatment of − D mother rats during lactation (10 i.u. vitamin D3/day) reversed the mineral, hormonal and skeletal abnormalities in mothers but not in pups.

J. Endocr. (1985) 105, 303–309

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K. GRIFFITHS and D. GLICK

SUMMARY

Recent biochemical studies on the functional zonation of the human adrenal cortex suggest that one of the earlier principal effects of corticotrophin (ACTH) on steroid biosynthesis occurs at the fasciculo-reticular border. This report deals with procedures for the study of the 11β-hydroxylase activity in microgram amounts of adrenal tissue and with the distribution of this activity throughout the adrenal cortex of the rat. ACTH administration is shown to stimulate the 11β-hydroxylase activity at the fasciculo-reticular border.

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Bradley S Miller, James T Bronk, Takayuki Nishiyama, Hiroshi Yamagiwa, Alok Srivastava, Mark E Bolander and Cheryl A Conover

7 and 14 days post-fracture. Min-R2000 Kodak film and the GE AMX4 X-ray unit (General Electric, Milwaukee, WI, USA) were used. Bridging of the fracture callus was assessed by two independent observers. Histology

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Miskal Sbaihi, Karine Rousseau, Sylvie Baloche, François Meunier, Martine Fouchereau-Peron and Sylvie Dufour

cortisol could play a major physiological role in bone remodeling in a non-mammalian vertebrate. We undertook histological and histophysical (qualitative and quantitative microradiographs) studies on vertebral bone of control and cortisol-treated silver

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Alessandra Bitto, Francesca Polito, Bruce Burnett, Robert Levy, Vincenzo Di Stefano, Mary Ann Armbruster, Herbert Marini, Letteria Minutoli, Domenica Altavilla and Francesco Squadrito

. Histology Analysis was performed by an investigator blinded to the treatment groups. For tissue collection, the leg was disarticulated at the hip, knee, and ankle. For microscopic histological evaluation, femurs were removed and immediately fixed in 10

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Yuxin Xie, Lianhe Chu, Yun Liu, Kathy W Y Sham, Jianzhen Li and Christopher H K Cheng

histological examination and functional integrity as revealed by the fertilization rate are not affected. However, the double knockout mutant lines lhb;fshb and lhr;fshr all produce infertile males ( Chu et al . 2014 , 2015 ). These results suggest that

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Paul Millar, Nupur Pathak, Vadivel Parthsarathy, Anthony J Bjourson, Maurice O’Kane, Varun Pathak, R Charlotte Moffett, Peter R Flatt and Victor A Gault

combination therapy for 28 days. Effects on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, body weight, hormones, memory and learning, islet and brain histology were assessed. Materials and methods Animals Male NIH Swiss mice (aged 8–10 weeks) purchased

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Eriko Inoue, Toshihiro Ichiki, Kotaro Takeda, Hirohide Matsuura, Toru Hashimoto, Jiro Ikeda, Aya Kamiharaguchi and Kenji Sunagawa

. Histological analysis Adipose tissues were fixed with 10% formaldehyde for 24 h. The specimens were embedded into paraffin. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The cross-sectional area for each adipocyte was determined using Dynamic

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Hong Xu, Yang Zhou, Yongxia Liu, Jian Ping, Qiyang Shou, Fangming Chen and Ru Ruo

Metformin alleviates histopathological damages and suppresses oxidative stress in liver. (A) Histological evaluation of liver tissues by H&E staining. Scale bar=100μm. (B) Collagen deposition was evaluated by Sirius red staining. The red color represents the

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J Cruickshank, D I Grossman, R K Peng, T R Famula and A M Oberbauer

cartilage and has been verified by evaluation of histological sections. Similarly, the distal growth plate was dissected from the calcified rib producing ~ 2.5 mm growth plates. The growth plates were further sterilely dissected free of adherent tissue