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Ekaterine Tskitishvili, Christel Pequeux, Carine Munaut, Renaud Viellevoye, Michelle Nisolle, Agnes Noël and Jean-Michel Foidart

processes related to prenatal brain development ( Gonzalez et al . 2007 ). Knowledge of the region-specific expression of each ER subtype is critical to better understand the actions of estrogens on human brain ( Gonzalez et al . 2007 ). The cortical plate

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Rosalba Senese, Federica Cioffi, Pieter de Lange, Fernando Goglia and Antonia Lanni

transporter MCT8. Tetrac can replace T 3 to restore normal fetal mouse brain development in MCT8-null mice ( Horn et al . 2013 ). Thyronamines The structures of the thyronamines (TAMs), a novel class of endogenous thyroid-signaling molecules, differ from T 4

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Raquel Moral, Richard Wang, Irma H Russo, Coral A Lamartiniere, Julia Pereira and Jose Russo

( Tanaka et al . 2006 ), in brain development in female mice, but not in males ( Tando et al . 2007 ), in rat prostate development ( Ramos et al . 2001 ), in the male and female genital tract ( Maffini et al . 2006 ), and in the tissue organization of

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Melody L Allensworth-James, Angela Odle, Anessa Haney, Melanie MacNicol, Angus MacNicol and Gwen Childs

expansion ( Cao et al. 2016 ). Leptin plays an important role in brain development and is detectable as early as E12.5 despite low levels of white adipose tissue ( Bouret 2010 ). LEPRs are detected in the developing brain as early as embryonic day 10

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Lorraine O’Driscoll, Patrick Gammell, Eadaoin McKiernan, Eoin Ryan, Per Bendix Jeppesen, Sweta Rani and Martin Clynes

involved in neurogenesis and brain development. The origins of pancreatic cells and neurons have many crucial transcription factors in common, including ngn3, Isl1, NeuroD1/Beta 2, Pax 6 and Nkx2.2 ( Edlund 1999 ); many of which are differentially

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Norbert Chauvet, Taoufik El-Yandouzi, Marie-Noëlle Mathieu, Audrey Schlernitzauer, Evelyne Galibert, Chrystel Lafont, Paul Le Tissier, Iain C Robinson, Patrice Mollard and Nathalie Coutry

expression increases with brain development and defines specific neural circuits ( Redies et al . 2003 , Suzuki & Takeichi 2008 ). More precisely, some brain structures expressing the same cadherin subtype are functionally related and connected by fiber

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L Bai, G Meredith and B E Tuch

. Perez-Villamil B , Schwarz PT & Vallejo M 1999 The pancreatic homeodomain transcript factor IDX/IPF1 is expressed in neural cells during brain development. Endocrinology 140 3857 –3860. Rajagopal J , Anderson WJ, Kume

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Nava Chapnik, Gili Solomon, Yoni Genzer, Ruth Miskin, Arieh Gertler and Oren Froy

protease that plays a role in fibrinolysis and tissue remodeling ( Mondino & Blasi 2004 ) and has been implicated in brain development, synaptic plasticity, and neuroprotection ( Del Bigio et al . 1999 , Cho et al . 2012 ). αMUPA mice show transgenic

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Jens Mittag, Wiebke Oehr, Heike Heuer, Tuula Hämäläinen, Bent Brachvogel, Ernst Pöschl and Karl Bauer

authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that would prejudice the impartiality of this scientific work. References Bernal J 2005 Thyroid hormones and brain development . Vitamins and Hormones 71 95 – 122 . Brachvogel B Dikschas J Moch

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S-Y Chan, J A Franklyn, H N Pemberton, J N Bulmer, T J Visser, C J McCabe and M D Kilby

. Hernandez A & St Germain DL 2003 Thyroid hormone deiodinases: physiology and clinical disorders. Current Opinion in Pediatrics 15 416 –420. Kilby MD 2003 Thyroid hormones and fetal brain development. Clinical