provides a negative feedback mechanism to control the size of the tissue producing it ( Gaussin & Depre 2005 ). We hypothesized that myostatin may act as a cardiac endocrine inhibitor for AngII. Myocyte enhance factor 2 (MEF-2) transcription factors are
Bao-Wei Wang, Hang Chang, Peiliang Kuan and Kou-Gi Shyu
Tracy Xiao Cui, Roland Kwok and Jessica Schwartz
model for understanding mechanisms of GH-regulated gene transcription ( Cesena et al . 2007 ). The c- fos promoter contains multiple GH-responsive enhancer elements ( Fig. 1 A), including the sis-inducible element (SIE), serum-response element (SRE
T. F. HOPKINS
The gonadotrophin-enhancing effect of RCF-2 (prepared from aqueous extracts of rat cerebral tissue) was evaluated in several species of laboratory animals. RCF-2 alone did not induce any discernible gonadal response. Superovulation in immature rats treated with pregnant mare serum (PMS) or a combination of PMS and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) was significantly increased by RCF-2. Ovulation in intact PMS-treated rats was increased to 84–127% above the response of controls. Hypophysectomized or intact rats treated with PMS + HCG shed 34–53% more ova when they were treated with 0·2 mg. RCF-2.
An almost maximal uterine weight response was found in immature mice treated with RCF-2 in combination with subminimally effective doses of HCG. RCF-2 neither induced ovulation in post-partum rabbits nor in PMS-treated rats in which the release of luteinizing hormone was blocked. The results of these studies suggest that fraction RCF-2 does not act centrally to evoke a release of gonadotrophins but probably has a direct ovarian effect.
J. Grinblat and A. Klein
A study was carried out to determine the effect on lymphocytic cortisol metabolism (LCM) of plasma from 62 patients with diffuse thyrotoxic goitre (DTG), 14 patients with toxic nodular goitre (TNG) and ten hypothyroid patients. Plasma of 33 healthy donors served as controls. A known concentration of human lymphocytes was incubated with cortisol in media containing 50% phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and 50% of one of the following additions: (1) PBS, (2) homologous plasma (HP), (3) heterologous plasma, (4) plasma from DTG patients, (5) plasma from TNG patients, (6) plasma from hypothyroid patients, (7) PBS and HP to which l-thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) had been added separately and as a mixture up to a concentration ten times the normal, (8) boiled HP and (9) boiled DTG plasma. Plasma from hypothyroid patients gave an LCM-enhancing effect (LCMEE) similar to that of HP. The plasma of DTG and TNG patients had a markedly lesser effect on LCM than did HP. The T4 and T3 had no additional effect when added to PBS or HP. Boiling of HP and DTG plasma resulted in a similar decrease in LCMEE. The findings of this study raise the possibility of the existence of a factor inhibiting LCMEE in the plasma of thyrotoxic patients.
J. Endocr. 1984 101, 149–153
Jay H Lo, Pinwen Peter Chiou, C M Lin and Thomas T Chen
et al. 2002 ). CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) are a family of leucine zipper transcription factors that consists of six members (α,β,γ,δ,ε,ζ), and have been isolated from several animal species since they were first identified
Rahman M Hafizur, Randa Babiker, Sakina Yagi, Sidra Chishti, Nurul Kabir and M Iqbal Choudhary
methanolic extract of G. alata root in vivo in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were treated over a 14-day period, revealing efficiency of the treatment. G. alata extract was found to control blood glucose level, enhance insulin
Swagat Ray, Michael J Fry and Philippa D Darbre
( Lippman & Dickson 1990 , Herman & Katzenellenbogen 1994 , Chan et al . 2002 ) and T-47-D and ZR-75-1 cells ( Daly & Darbre 1990 a , b ). Increased levels of the insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 (IGF1R) and enhanced sensitivity to IGFs in
Ivonne Gisèle Makom Ndifossap, Francesca Frigerio, Marina Casimir, Florence Ngueguim Tsofack, Etienne Dongo, Pierre Kamtchouing, Théophile Dimo and Pierre Maechler
increased by 49% ( P <0.05) compared with control cells. These data show enhanced glucose metabolism following chronic treatment with SBE. Discussion SBE is widely used as traditional remedy against diabetes in Africa ( Dieye et al . 2008 ). However, very
Patrick Müller, Kenneth W Merrell, Justin D Crofts, Caroline Rönnlund, Chin-Yo Lin, Jan-Åke Gustafsson and Anders Ström
Introduction Hairy and enhancer of split homolog-1 (HES-1) is a basic-helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor and an effector of the Notch signaling pathway. Studies of the HES-1 −/− mouse show that the factor plays an important role during
Yun-Ju Chen, Pei-Wen Hsiao, Ming-Ting Lee, J Ian Mason, Ferng-Chun Ke and Jiuan-Jiuan Hwang
functions ( Ingman & Robertson 2002 ). TGFβ mainly acts as a positive regulator of granulosa cell differentiation as it enhances FSH-stimulated expression of LH receptor, inhibin, gap junction protein connexin 43, and steroidogenesis in rat and murine