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Greg M Kowalski, Michael J Kraakman, Shaun A Mason, Andrew J Murphy and Clinton R Bruce

‘trapping’ of glucose involves an investment of 1 ATP, with the subsequent dephosphorylation prior to entry into glycolysis (ATP generation) results in a net loss of 1 ATP. Enhanced rates of hepatic futile glucose cycling are a common feature of type 2

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Isabel Göhring and Hindrik Mulder

a triggering pathway and an amplifying pathway ( Henquin 2009 ). Thus, glucose is transported into the β-cell proportionally to its extracellular concentration by GLUT2 (rodents) and GLUT1 and -2 (humans). Its subsequent metabolism in glycolysis and

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Richard R Almon, Debra C DuBois, Jin Y Jin and William J Jusko

synthesis and glycolysis. Insulin also reduces fat utilization through β-oxidation in muscle. In addition, by way of its combined effects on both muscle and muscle vasculature, it increases blood flow through the musculature, facilitating glucose uptake

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Vanesa Jiménez-Amilburu, Susanne Jong-Raadsen, Jeroen Bakkers, Herman P Spaink and Rubén Marín-Juez

on glycolysis to obtain energy ( Chung et al . 2007 , 2010 ). In addition, it has been described that proper heart formation is the result of a combination of genetic and mechanical factors that result in the proper development of the cardiac

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P Newsholme, E Rebelato, F Abdulkader, M Krause, A Carpinelli and R Curi

an increase in glucose availability, apart from involving activation of glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP, also triggers additional signaling mechanisms involving the modulation of nitrogen

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Mauricio S Krause, Neville H McClenaghan, Peter R Flatt, Paulo I Homem de Bittencourt, Colin Murphy and Philip Newsholme

-dependent manner. Because glycolysis is essential to produce ATP (for stimulus–secretion coupling) and other energy-dependent process such as protein and GSH synthesis, this cellular response may be essential during inflammation of the pancreatic islet. The

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Astrid Chamson-Reig, Sandra M Thyssen, Edith Arany and David J Hill

tolerance, low muscle lipid content, and reduced rates of glycolysis ( Phillips et al. 1994 , 1996 , Taylor et al. 1995 ). The maintenance of birth length in these infants suggests that the fetal insult occurs after 36 weeks when the human fetus

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Yi Lin and Zhongjie Sun

), generation of glucose from nonsugar carbon substrates and intracellular energy supply via glycolysis ( Klover & Mooney 2004 ). Fatty acid oxidation, de novo synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and bile acid synthesis, as well as lipoprotein assembly are

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Marina Komrakova, Carsten Krischek, Michael Wicke, Stephan Sehmisch, Mohammad Tezval, Maximillian Rohrberg, Thomas Brandsch, Klaus M Stuermer and Ewa K Stuermer

NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I, EC are expressed in U/g protein. In glycolysis, LDH catalyzes the reduction of pyruvate (1.2 mM) to lactate accompanied with the oxidation of NADH (150 μM) to NAD + . In the enzyme activity assay

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Yusuke Taguchi, Yoshie Tasaki, Kiyoshi Terakado, Kenichi Kobayashi, Takeo Machida and Tetsuya Kobayashi

molecular weight as that in normal mice is synthesized and stored in the islets of grt mice. Glucose is transported by membrane-bound GLUT2 into the β-cell, where it is phosphorylated by GK to yield glucose-6-phosphate, thereby initiating glycolysis. The