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Yolanda Diz-Chaves, Manuel Gil-Lozano, Laura Toba, Juan Fandiño, Hugo Ogando, Lucas C González-Matías and Federico Mallo

Mercer JG Morgan DG Moar KM Ghatei MA Bloom SR 2000 Effect of leptin on hypothalamic GLP-1 peptide and brain-stem pre-proglucagon mRNA . Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 269 331 – 335 . ( doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000

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Xinrong Zhou, Bangguo Qian, Ning Ji, Conghui Lui, Zhiyuan Liu, Bing Li, Huarong Zhou and Caifeng Yan

-cell function in Goto-Kakizaki rats through an enhanced proglucagon gene expression and L-cell number . Surgery 142 74 – 85 . ( doi:10.1016/j.surg.2007.03.001 ) Pories WJ Swanson MS MacDonald KG Long SB Morris PG Brown BM Barakat HA deRamon

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Mi-Hyun Kim, Jae-Hwan Jee, Sunyoung Park, Myung-Shik Lee, Kwang-Won Kim and Moon-Kyu Lee

transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), which has its binding site in the G2 enhancer element of proglucagon ( G lu ), a precursor of GLP1 ( Akiyama 2000 ). Insulin enhances GLP1 production via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β

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Farid F Chehab

proglucagon ( Gcg ) gene, acts as an agonist at GLP1R and stimulates weight loss ( Kosinski et al . 2012 ), but has not yet been shown to exhibit any reproductive effect. Similarly, apoA-IV, which is secreted by the small intestine in response to fat

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Hong Lan, Galya Vassileva, Aaron Corona, Li Liu, Hana Baker, Andrei Golovko, Susan J Abbondanzo, Weiwen Hu, Shijun Yang, Yun Ning, Robert A Del Vecchio, Frederique Poulet, Maureen Laverty, Eric L Gustafson, Joseph A Hedrick and Timothy J Kowalski

Biophysical Research Communications 335 97 – 104 . Sinclair EM Drucker DJ 2005 Proglucagon-derived peptides: mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential . Physiology 20 357 – 365 . Soga T Ohishi T Matsui T Saito T Matsumoto M

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Raúl M Luque and Rhonda D Kineman

MM Samson WK Corbett JA Salvatori AS Stein LM Kolar GR Naatz A Yosten GLC 2016 Neuronostatin acts via GPR107 to increase cAMP-independent PKA phosphorylation and proglucagon mRNA accumulation in pancreatic alpha-cells . American Journal of

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S Shaikh, F H Bloomfield, M K Bauer, H H Phua, R S Gilmour and J E Harding

Gynecology 99 490 –496. Roberge JN & Brubaker PL 1993 Regulation of intestinal proglucagon-derived peptide secretion by glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide in a novel enteroendocrine loop. Endocrinology 133 233

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Kook Hwan Kim and Myung-Shik Lee

al . 2014 ), suggesting that glucagon increases FGF21 levels through post-translational mechanisms as well as transcriptional mechanisms. GLP1, a proglucagon-derived peptide hormone, is secreted from L cells of the intestine in response to nutrients

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Paolo Comeglio, Ilaria Cellai, Tommaso Mello, Sandra Filippi, Elena Maneschi, Francesca Corcetto, Chiara Corno, Erica Sarchielli, Annamaria Morelli, Elena Rapizzi, Daniele Bani, Daniele Guasti, Gabriella Barbara Vannelli, Andrea Galli, Luciano Adorini, Mario Maggi and Linda Vignozzi

.235.3.C97) Dhanvantari S Izzo A Jansen E Brubaker PL 2001 Coregulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 synthesis with proglucagon and prohormone convertase 1 gene expression in enteroendocrine GLUTag cells . Endocrinology 142 37 - 42

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Volker Hartenstein

PK 1986 Cellular localization of proglucagon/glucagon-like peptide I messenger RNAs in rat brain. Journal of Neuroscience Research 16 97 –107. Han DW , Patel N & Douglas Watson R 2006 Regulation of protein