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Neele S Dellschaft, Marie-Cecile Alexandre-Gouabau, David S Gardner, Jean-Philippe Antignac, Duane H Keisler, Helen Budge, Michael E Symonds and Sylvain P Sebert

-related peptide ( AgRP ); ii) insulin and leptin signaling: protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 1 ( PTP1B ( PTPN1 )), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 ( SOCS3 ), insulin receptor ( IR ( INSR )), and leptin receptor ( obRb ( LEPR )); iii

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Marion Walser, Maria Teresa Samà, Ruth Wickelgren, Maria Åberg, Mohammad Bohlooly-Y, Bob Olsson, Jan Törnell, Jörgen Isgaard and N David Åberg

numbers ( Ransome et al . 2004 ), while increasing GH signalling via disrupting the suppressor of cytokine signalling 2 (SOCS2) decreased neuron numbers and presumably increased astrocyte numbers ( Turnley et al . 2002 ). Neither from these studies nor

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V E MacRae, C Farquharson and S F Ahmed

, cytokines may induce a state of IGF-I resistance by reducing IGF-I signal transduction in chondrocytes by inhibiting insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation ( Broussard et al. 2004 ) by the up-regulation of the suppressor of cytokine-signalling

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Mauricio da Silva Krause, Aline Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt Jr, Neville H McClenaghan, Peter R Flatt, Colin Murphy and Philip Newsholme

Mooney RA 2003 Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3), a potential mediator of interleukin-6-dependent insulin resistance in hepatocytes . Journal of Biological Chemistry 278 13740 – 13746 . doi:10.1074/jbc.M210689200 . Smukler SR Tang

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Mohamed Asrih and François R Jornayvaz

, such as the JAKs/STATs. Thereafter, JAK activation induces STAT phosphorylation, dimerization, and translocation to the nucleus, leading to transcription of several genes, such as the suppressor of cytokine signaling ( SOCS ), which is known to alter

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J G Miquet, A I Sotelo, A Bartke and D Turyn

signaling regulation. The members of the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of proteins SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 inhibit JAK2 activity ( Greenhalgh & Hilton 2001 ), while the SH2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) binds to

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Susan Kralisch, Johannes Klein, Ulrike Lossner, Matthias Bluher, Ralf Paschke, Michael Stumvoll and Mathias Fasshauer

suggest that downregulation of visfatin in adipocytes may contribute to impaired glucose tolerance caused by increased GH levels. However, it has to be pointed out that stimulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1 ( Fasshauer et al. 2004 b

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Gayathri Swaminathan, Bentley Varghese, Chellappagounder Thangavel, Christopher J Carbone, Alexander Plotnikov, K G Suresh Kumar, Elizabeth M Jablonski, Charles V Clevenger, Vincent Goffin, Luqin Deng, Stuart J Frank and Serge Y Fuchs

. Irandoust MI Aarts LH Roovers O Gits J Erkeland SJ Touw IP 2007 Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 controls lysosomal routing of G-CSF receptor . EMBO Journal 26 1782 – 1793 . Kohlhuber F Rogers NC Watling

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Sebastian Weise, Susan Kralisch, Grit Sommer, Ulrike Lossner, Matthias Bluher, Michael Stumvoll and Mathias Fasshauer

membrane through downregulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 ( Jager et al . 2007 ). Furthermore, long-term IL-1α stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes induced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 and -3 ( He et al . 2006 ), which are well

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Fausto Bogazzi, Dania Russo, Francesco Raggi, Mohammad Bohlooly-Y, Jan Tornell, Chiara Sardella, Martina Lombardi, Claudio Urbani, Luca Manetti, Sandra Brogioni and Enio Martino

doi:10.1210/en.2008-0346 . Bogazzi F Ultimieri F Raggi F Russo D Costa A Marciano E Bartalena L Martino E 2009a Changes in the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 2 in the colonic mucosa of acromegalic patients are