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Harn-Shen Chen, Tzu-En Wu, Chi-Chang Juan and Hong-Da Lin

. Insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion are the main pathophysiologic defects responsible for the development of type 2 diabetes (Saad 1991, Nathan 2002). This study proposed the hypothesis that myocardial HSPD1 expression may be increased in the

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Hiranya Pintana, Wanpitak Pongkan, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Nipon Chattipakorn and Siriporn C Chattipakorn

Introduction Long-term high-calorie diets cause obesity, leading to the development of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus ( Pandolfi et al . 1994 , Kahn & Flier 2000 ). Moreover, several studies demonstrated that

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Eloise A Bradley, Dino Premilovac, Andrew C Betik, Donghua Hu, Emily Attrill, Stephen M Richards, Stephen Rattigan and Michelle A Keske

actions of insulin in rat skeletal muscle: evidence for capillary recruitment . Diabetes 1381 – 1388 . ( ) Rattigan S Clark MG Barrett EJ 1999 Acute vasoconstriction-induced insulin resistance in rat

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Sujith Rajan, Kripa Shankar, Muheeb Beg, Salil Varshney, Abhishek Gupta, Ankita Srivastava, Durgesh Kumar, Raj K Mishra, Zakir Hussain, Jiaur R Gayen and Anil N Gaikwad

2015). Obesity is defined as excess accumulation of body fat or adipose tissue and is considered to be the antecedent of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, etc. ( Ye

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Sandra Pereira, Wen Qin Yu, María E Frigolet, Jacqueline L Beaudry, Yaniv Shpilberg, Edward Park, Cristina Dirlea, B L Grégoire Nyomba, Michael C Riddell, I George Fantus and Adria Giacca

Introduction Obesity leads to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) because of insulin resistance, and insulin resistance of obesity is due to elevated circulating levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) and cytokines ( Boden 1997 , Lewis et al . 2002

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Jiali Liu, Yue Li, Xiaoyan Zhou, Xi Zhang, Hao Meng, Sanyuan Liu, Lei Zhang, Juntao He, Qian He and Yan Geng

Introduction In recent years, there has been an increasing appreciation for the significance of insulin resistance, which is a common feature of obesity and predisposes affected individuals to a variety of pathological conditions, including

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Haiyong Chen, Hui-Yao Lan, Dimitrios H Roukos and William C Cho

2013 ). DM is a complex disease characterized by high blood glucose levels. There are two major forms of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from a lack of insulin production in pancreatic β-cells. T2D is due to resistance to insulin, resulting in

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Bethany P Cummings, Andrew A Bremer, Timothy J Kieffer, David D'Alessio and Peter J Havel

levels of circulating exogenous and endogenous glucocorticoids is associated with several side effects, including insulin resistance ( Vegiopoulos & Herzig 2007 ). For example, patients with enhanced endogenous glucocorticoid production (Cushing

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Jie Xu, Shaonin Ji, Derwei Y Venable, John L Franklin and Joseph L Messina

circulating GH ( Laron 1995 ). Abdominal obesity is also associated with human peripheral insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus ( Bjorntorp 1997 ). Common to all of these conditions is an increase in the ratio of insulin to GH ( Ho

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Juthamard Surapongchai, Mujalin Prasannarong, Tepmanas Bupha-Intr and Vitoon Saengsirisuwan

Introduction Insulin resistance of skeletal muscle represents a major defect in the maintenance of euglycemia and is often accompanied by a variety of metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities, including glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia