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Menghong Yan and Qiwei Zhai

). Likewise, the offspring whose fathers experienced psychological stress show elevated blood glucose and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis ( Wu et al. 2016 ). These findings demonstrate that paternal stress may lead to metabolic disorders in offspring

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Femke L Groeneweg, Henk Karst, E Ron de Kloet and Marian Joëls

Introduction Stress has many faces. On the one hand, it is a highly adaptive response to disturbances in homeostasis. Decades of research have identified a complex, tightly balanced system in the brain and periphery that translates the effects of

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Marian Joëls and E Ronald de Kloet

differentially . Brain Research 103 603 – 612 . ( doi:10.1016/0006-8993(76)90463-7 ) Gesing A Bilang-Bleuel A Droste SK Linthorst AC Holsboer F Reul JMHM 2001 Psychological stress increases hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor

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Paula J Brunton, Katie M Sullivan, David Kerrigan, John A Russell, Jonathan R Seckl and Amanda J Drake

and adulthood ( Seckl & Holmes 2007 ). Moreover, evidence from human studies indicate that prenatal stress (PNS) is associated with a greater risk for developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes later in life ( Entringer et al . 2008 , Li et

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Nathalie Marissal-Arvy, Alexandra Gaumont, Allan Langlois, Fabrice Dabertrand, Marion Bouchecareilh, Claudine Tridon and Pierre Mormede

. Experiment 1 Animals Our first experiment aimed to explore the HPA axis activity and reactivity to psychological and metabolic stress in LOU and F344 rats. It was conducted in 12-week-old males and females. The same rat cohort ( n =8 per sex and strain) was

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Ann T Hanna-Mitchell, Amanda Wolf-Johnston, James R Roppolo, Tony C A Buffington and Lori A Birder

The effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on bladder function in a rodent model . Urology 78 e961 – e967 . ( doi:10.1016/j.urology.2011.06.041 ) Squillacioti et al. 2011 Squillacioti C De Luca A Liguori G Paino S Mirabella N

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Tracey A Quinn, Udani Ratnayake, Margie Castillo-Melendez, Karen M Moritz, Hayley Dickinson and David W Walker

Introduction Epidemiological data suggests that fetal development is affected by a number of stresses during gestation, which can lead to alterations in the regulation of stress-sensitive physiology into adult life ( Adams et al . 1993 , Brosnan

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Luba Sominsky, Christine L Jasoni, Hannah R Twigg and Sarah J Spencer

are hypo-responsive to stress, having low circulating corticosterone and suppressed ACTH and corticosterone responses to mild psychological stress or immune challenge ( Schmidt et al . 2006 ). This effect is likely one that is maintained by the

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B M McGowan, J S Minnion, K G Murphy, D Roy, S A Stanley, W S Dhillo, J V Gardiner, M A Ghatei and S R Bloom

increase in plasma serum in response to acute physical or psychological stress ( Noel et al . 1972 ), although the mechanism by which this response is mediated remains uncharacterised. Many peptides have been implicated in prolactin release, including

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Dipali Goyal, Sean W Limesand and Ravi Goyal

maternal stress irrespective of type (caloric malnutrition, an imbalanced diet with low protein, hypothermia, hyperthermia, maternal overfeeding, as well as psychological stressors due to domestic violence) can lead to changes in DNA methylation and fetal