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J Patel, K A Landers, R H Mortimer and K Richard

. 2011 ). DFO, a hypoxia mimetic drug, was used in this study as a positive control and has been used in JEG-3 cells in other studies at similar concentrations without affecting cell viability ( Patel et al . 2010 a ). DFO is an iron chelator and mimics

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Peggy Schwarz, Pavel Strnad, Nadine Singer, Franz Oswald, Robert Ehehalt, Guido Adler and Hasan Kulaksiz

cardiomyocytes pronounced at the intercalated disc region in rat heart ( Merle et al . 2007 ). Expression was found to be dependent on hypoxia, suggesting that hepcidin in the heart prevents the cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced oxidative stress by elicited

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Yan Ding and Mary E Choi

deprivation, hypoxia, and ER stress can prevent cell death and is thought to represent survival mechanism. Recent studies have suggested that the pathogenesis of DN is associated with impaired autophagic activity via activation of the mTOR pathway ( Fig. 2

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Lauren E MacDonald, Sarah L Alderman, Sarah Kramer, Patrick T K Woo and Nicholas J Bernier

parasitemia and anemia ( Li & Woo 1991 , Thomas & Woo 1992 , Chin et al . 2004 ). During acute infection, Cryptobia -infected fish are also characterized by a reduced aerobic scope ( Kumaraguru et al . 1995 ) and an increased susceptibility to hypoxia

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Ian M Bird

state of hypoxia, and that such regulation is likely mediated at many different levels including control of SF-1 transcription factor activity (see Ducsay & Myers (2011) ). This is an interesting twist and the fact NO has now been shown to act as a

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T Pasqua, B Tota, C Penna, A Corti, M C Cerra, Y P Loh and T Angelone

, Belsar, Varese, Italy) ( Penna et al . 2013 b ). Normoxic and hypoxic experimental conditions Cell survival was studied under normoxia, i.e., standard conditions (normoxic: 21% O 2 , 5% CO 2 ). The effects of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) were studied by

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Susan M Soto, Amy C Blake, Stephanie R Wesolowski, Paul J Rozance, Kristen B Barthel, Bifeng Gao, Byron Hetrick, Carrie E McCurdy, Natalia G Garza, William W Hay Jr, Leslie A Leinwand, Jacob E Friedman and Laura D Brown

recoverable after prolonged exposure to nutrients and anabolic hormones in vitro . In vivo factors such as reduced insulin and IGFs, hypoxia and/or elevated counter-regulatory hormones may be inhibiting muscle growth in IUGR fetuses. The mechanisms

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Mohammed Bensellam, Jean-Christophe Jonas and D Ross Laybutt

oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation and hypoxia. We depict the roles of the transcriptional regulators such as Foxo1, Myc and the inhibitors of differentiation and discuss the role of the failure of adaptive unfolded protein

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Elena Maneschi, Linda Vignozzi, Annamaria Morelli, Tommaso Mello, Sandra Filippi, Ilaria Cellai, Paolo Comeglio, Erica Sarchielli, Alessandra Calcagno, Benedetta Mazzanti, Roberto Vettor, Gabriella Barbara Vannelli, Luciano Adorini and Mario Maggi

. Hypoxia detection and immunohistochemistry VAT oxygenation was analyzed using the bio-reductive drug pimonidazole hydrochloride (hypoxyprobe-1, 60 mg/kg), injected i.p. 1 h before killing, as described previously ( Maneschi et al . 2012 , Morelli et al

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Meredith A Kelleher, Hannah K Palliser, David W Walker and Jonathan J Hirst

Therapeutics 288 679 – 684 . Kruse M Rey M Barutta J Coirini H 2009 Allopregnanolone effects on astrogliosis induced by hypoxia in organotypic cultures of striatum, hippocampus, and neocortex . Brain Research 1303 1 – 7 doi:10.1016/j