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A Corbould

/treatment group; Fig. 3d ). Insulin signaling via IRS-1 and PI3-kinase Insulin signaling via IRS-1 was assessed only in cultured adipocytes treated with T 10 nmol/l, as the physiological relevance of higher T

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Aoife Kiely, Aisling Robinson, Neville H McClenaghan, Peter R Flatt and Philip Newsholme

such as pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)) can alter patterns of insulin signalling in these target tissues, resulting in resistance to the action of insulin ( Tilg & Moschen 2008 ). Recent

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Alpana Mathur, Vivek Kumar Pandey and Poonam Kakkar

efficiency of its target tissues for glucose uptake and its metabolism in response to insulin signaling ( Hanssen et al . 2015 ). Inactivation of the receptor responses (signaling molecules) has been reported as the underlying cause responsible for impaired

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Sergio Di Meo, Susanna Iossa and Paola Venditti

and maintenance of adequate muscle glucose disposal may help to prevent diabetes. The prevalent theory on impaired insulin signaling in obesity links IR to the increase of circulating FFA and excessive deposition of lipids in non-adipose tissues

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Sophie E Leney and Jeremy M Tavaré

intense investigation. To explore this, we will first discuss how GLUT4 is sequestered away from the plasma membrane in the basal state, and how insulin action may impact on these processes. We will then discuss insulin signalling itself in more detail

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Andrew W Stoker

) insulin signalling. Interested readers are encouraged to read other excellent reviews that cover additional areas of PTP signalling as well as their cellular and developmental functions ( Espanel et al. 2001 , Stoker 2001 , Beltran & Bixby 2003

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Emilio Hirsch, Carlotta Costa and Elisa Ciraolo

humans (IRS5/DOK4 and IRS6/DOK5) that are involved in insulin signaling but are not involved in PI3K activation ( Cai et al. 2003 ). With a molecular weight ranging between 60 and 180 kDa, IRS proteins show differential tissue distribution as well as

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Richard W Nelson and Claudia E Reusch

has not been reported. The mechanisms of insulin resistance on a cellular level and the interrelations of the different findings are not yet understood in cats. Most of the research to date has focused on glucose transporters, insulin signaling genes

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Lidong Zhai and Joseph L Messina

factor in chronic and acute insulin resistance ( Witchel & DeFranco 2006 , Qi & Rodrigues 2007 , Vegiopoulos & Herzig 2007 , Li et al . 2009 ) by interfering with components of the insulin signaling cascade ( Giorgino et al . 1993 , Saad et al

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Jiali Liu, Yue Li, Xiaoyan Zhou, Xi Zhang, Hao Meng, Sanyuan Liu, Lei Zhang, Juntao He, Qian He and Yan Geng

active form of CaMKIV in muscle improved insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake, with increases in GLUT4 content and improvements in insulin signaling. Also, CaMKIV activation could improve hepatic and adipose insulin action via increase in myokines