implicated in regulating genes involved in the metabolism and transport of cholesterol ( Lehmann et al . 1997 , Venkateswaran et al . 2000 ) and in enhancing the expression of lipogenic enzymes ( Repa et al . 2000 ). Recent studies have also demonstrated
Thin Xuan Vo, Andrew Revesz, Gurjeev Sohi, Noelle Ma and Daniel B Hardy
Gregorio Pérez-Palacios, René Santillán, Rocío García-Becerra, Elizabeth Borja-Cacho, Fernando Larrea, Pablo Damián-Matsumura, Leticia González and Ana E Lemus
distinctive androgen-metabolic pathway in MCF-7 cells, characterised by overexpression and enhanced activities of the androgen-metabolising enzymes, resulting in a large formation of 3α,5α-diol and 3β,5α-diol. In subsequent studies, the oestrogen-like activity
R. Bomford and R. Aston
The biological activity of growth hormones can be enhanced by complexing with monoclonal antibodies of appropriate specificity. In order to define the regions associated with the phenomenon, site-directed antisera to ovine GH (oGH) were prepared by vaccination of sheep with synthetic peptides. Peptides from six distinct regions of the oGH molecule raised antibodies which recognized the hormone in solid-phase radioimmunoassay; however, only one peptide elicited high-affinity antibody as determined by liquid-phase assay. This peptide, corresponding to amino acid sequence 35–53, resulted in circulating hormone antibody in the majority of vaccinated sheep. Immunoglobulin prepared from the serum of immunized animals produced an enhancement of the somatotrophic activity of exogenously administered GH in dwarf mice as determined by the incorporation of [35S]sulphate into costal cartilage. The identification of an antigenic peptide sequence from oGH/bovine GH which elicits enhancing antisera, raises the possibility of a growth-promotion vaccine.
Journal of Endocrinology (1990) 125, 31–38
P. F. Terranova, J. Th. J. Uilenbroek, L. Saville, D. Horst and Y. Nakamura
Preovulatory follicles from adult hamsters on the morning of pro-oestrus were used in this study. Serotonin stimulated oestradiol production by preovulatory follicles during a 5-h incubation in 1 ml Krebs–Ringer bicarbonate glucose medium containing isobutylmethylxanthine (0.1 mmol/l; IBMX) and androstenedione (1 μmol/l). The enhanced oestradiol production by serotonin was dependent on the dose of IBMX and androstenedione. Mianserin, a serotonin type-1 and serotonin type-2 receptor antagonists, prevented the serotonin-enhanced oestradiol production in a dose-dependent manner. Ketanserin, a specific serotonin type-2 receptor antagonist, was ineffective in blocking the action of serotonin, indicating that the effect of serotonin was mediated by the serotonin type-1 receptor. In the presence of androstenedione (1 μmol/l), serotonin was unable to enhance oestradiol production in isolated granulosa cells. It was also unable to enhance oestradiol production in early atretic follicles; atresia was induced experimentally by an injection of phenobarbital in order to prevent ovulation.
The data indicate that serotonin stimulates oestradiol production by hamster preovulatory follicles in vitro. The mechanism of action of serotonin involves an intact healthy follicle, a serotonin type-1 receptor and possibly cyclic AMP. The increased oestradiol secretion might be related to increased androgen production by the follicle and increased permeability (leakiness) of the follicle to androstenedione which serves as substrate for aromatization to oestradiol by the granulosa cell.
Journal of Endocrinology (1990) 125, 433–438
P. C. Bates, R. Aston and A. T. Holder
Monoclonal antibody (MAb) to GH has been shown to increase the anabolic response induced by the hormone in individual tissues of dwarf mice. Dwarf mice were treated with GH at a low and a high dose (2·5 and 50 mU/day respectively), with and without complexing to an MAb. Treatment was for 7 and 14 days, at which times protein synthesis rates in skeletal muscle, liver and heart were determined from incorporation of labelled phenylalanine following injection of a flooding dose. The MAb potentiated the actions of GH and produced increases in the rates of protein synthesis in each of the tissues to a significantly greater extent than did GH alone.
The increase in protein synthesis rate induced by MAb appears to be mechanistically distinct from that observed by increasing the dose of GH. In skeletal muscle and liver there was a dose–response to the GH alone in terms of the RNA concentration, i.e. the capacity for protein synthesis, whereas in each tissue examined the MAb caused very little further response in the RNA concentration. The MAb-induced enhancement of protein synthesis rate was almost entirely due to an increase in the RNA activity, i.e. the efficiency of the synthesizing system.
Complexing GH to a particular MAb, or to antisera of restricted epitope specificity, has previously been shown to enhance the in-vivo effects of GH on whole body protein content; the mechanism for this enhancement has not been adequately determined. The present results suggest that the mechanism of MAb enhancement of GH activity is unlikely to be through prolonging GH action by increasing its serum half-life, but may be through effects on GH-receptor response, possibly through targeting of the GH to a particular receptor sub-type or through inhibition of internalization of the GH-receptor complex.
Journal of Endocrinology (1992) 132, 369–375
T Ogiwara, C L Chik and A K Ho
In this study, the role of tyrosine phosphorylation in agonist-stimulated cAMP accumulation and GH release in rat anterior pituitary cells was investigated. It was found that genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, while having no effect on its own, potentiated GHRH-stimulated cAMP accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. In comparison, daidzein, an inactive analogue of genistein, was ineffective and vanadate, a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, reduced GHRH-stimulated cAMP accumulation. Additional structurally unrelated tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erbstatin and tyrphostins, also potentiated GHRH-stimulated cAMP accumulation. To determine the site of action of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), cholera toxin and forskolin were used to increase cAMP accumulation. Genistein enhanced the PACAP-, cholera toxin- or forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, suggesting that the site of action is at the post-receptor level. However, when the phosphodiesterase was inhibited by isobutylmethylxanthine, genistein did not potentiate and vanadate did not inhibit GHRH-stimulated cAMP accumulation, indicating that phosphodiesterase is a probable site of action for the inhibitor. Genistein and erbstatin also enhanced GHRH-stimulated GH release and the effect of vanadate was inhibitory. These results indicate that tyrosine kinase inhibitors enhance cAMP accumulation through their action on phosphodiesterase activity in rat anterior pituitary cells and the tyrosine kinase pathway appears to be involved in the control of GH release.
Journal of Endocrinology (1997) 152, 193–199
M. C. d'Emden and J. D. Wark
Vitamin D may regulate pituitary function, as there are selective effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) on gene expression in clonal pituitary tumour cells, and on TRH-induced TSH release in normal rat pituitary cells in vitro. The role of Ca2+ in 1,25-(OH)2D3-enhanced TSH release from primary rat pituitary cell cultures was investigated. Pretreatment with 10 nmol 1,25-(OH)2D3/l for 24 h augmented KCl (3–60 mmol/l)-induced TSH release over 1 h at all KCl concentrations greater than 7·5 mmol/l (P< 0·001), with a 76% enhancement of TSH release induced by 30 mmol KCl/l (P<0·001). The Ca2+ channel antagonist nifedipine (10 nmol/l–10 μmol/l) caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of KCl (60 mmol/l)-induced TSH secretion. Pretreatment with 1,25-(OH)2D3 enhanced KCl-induced release at all concentrations of nifedipine (P<0·001). The Ca2+ selective divalent cation ionophore ionomycin (1 nmol/l–1 μmol/l), and the Ca2+ channel agonist BAY K 8644 (10 nmol/l–1 μmol/l) increased prolactin secretion but did not increase TSH release, and 1,25-(OH)2D3 had no effect. At an extracellular Ca2+ concentration of less than 500 nmol/l, TRH-induced TSH release was observed only after treatment with 1,25-(OH)2D3 (P<0·01). As the extracellular Ca2+ concentration was increased, greater increments of TRH-induced TSH release were observed following pretreatment with 1,25-(OH)2D3 (P<0·01). However, the effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3 in the thyrotroph was independent of the pretreatment extracellular Ca2+ concentration. We have shown that 1,25-(OH)2D3 acts selectively on the thyrotroph to enhance in-vitro responsiveness to TRH and KCl. These data suggest that the action of 1,25-(OH)2D3 in the thyrotroph is to enhance intracellular signal transduction. They further support a permissive or regulatory role of vitamin D in the normal pituitary gland.
Journal of Endocrinology (1989) 121, 441–450
R. K. Iles and T. Chard
Treatment of three β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG)-expressing bladder tumour cell lines with interferon-α (IFN-α) (5000 U/per 106 cells) enhanced the rate of β-hCG secretion from 34·2 ±0·9 to 102·5 ± 0·1 mIU/106 cells per 72 h in cell line 5637; 111·15 ± 11·75 to 261·8± 51·75 mIU/106 cells per 72 h in cell line RT112 and 503·25 ± 28·55 to 1361·65± 110·3 mIU/106 cells per 72 h in cell line SCaBER. IFN-γ had no effect on the rate of β-hCG secretion. Both interferons reduced the growth rate of the cells: incorporation of radiolabelled thymidine was reduced by 15–45% in the presence of IFN-α and by 20–53% with IFN-γ. Enhancement of β-hCG secretion by IFN-α was dose-dependent over the range 5–50 000 U/106 cells. Analysis of cell cycle profiles by flow cytometry showed no increase in the proportion of cells in the G0G1 phase in cultures treated with IFN-α.
The conceptus of some species produces substances which are either luteotrophic or anti-luteolytic. In sheep, the corpus luteum is maintained by ovine trophoblast protein-I, which has been shown to have structural homology with human IFN-α. In primates and a few other higher mammals, early pregnancy is maintained by chorionic gonadotrophin. IFN-α is also an early product of the human conceptus. We have now shown that IFN-α enhances the ectopic production of the β-subunit of hCG by bladder tumour cells. This study suggests a direct transcription/translational effect of this cytokine on the expression of a reproductive endocrine gene.
Journal of Endocrinology (1989) 123, 501–507
K. A. HINCKLEY, S. FEARN, B.R. HOWARD and I.W. HENDERSON
Laminitis, a microvascular disease of the equine hoof leads to severe lameness. Exogenous iv 1-arginine and transdermal nitric oxide donors, such as GTN, applied to the pasterns improve lameness during acute laminitis. Near Infrared spectroscopy in an earlier study showed haemostasis and ischaemia in the hoof during acute laminitis, both were alleviated by 1-arginine. Quantitative NIRS in the present study shows that transdermal GTN increases blood flow in the equine hoof. It is concluded that glyceryl trinitrate enhances nitric oxide mediated perfusion within the equine hoof in normal and chronically laminitic horses and ponies.
J. Liu, R. M. Haigh and C. T. Jones
Glucocorticoids are known to regulate the contractility of vascular smooth muscle by increasing its response to noradrenaline. The molecular mechanisms for achieving this remain unclear. Recent results in our laboratory have demonstrated that glucocorticoids affect both α1-adrenoceptor number and coupling to G proteins. Whether this leads to an increase in second-messenger production has to be established. The present experiments, therefore, report the effects of dexamethasone on inositol polyphosphate production in vascular smooth muscle cells in culture. Noradrenaline induced the release of inositol polyphosphates from prelabelled [3H]inositol phosphoinositides in the membrane in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration of noradrenaline which caused half-maximal response was 1·26 μmol/l. Prazosin inhibited noradrenaline-induced inositol monophosphate formation to 10·26 ± 3·67% (mean ± s.e.m.; P < 0·01, n = 5) of control value whereas yohimbine reduced it to only 61·74 ± 11·82% (P < 0·05, n = 5), suggesting an action primarily through α1-adrenergic receptors. Dexamethasone (100 nmol/l, 48 h) enhanced noradrenaline-induced inositol monophosphate, bisphosphate and trisphosphate formation up to twofold (P < 0·001, n = 5). The enhancement of the response occurred despite the fact that dexamethasone reduced [3H]inositol prelabelling of membrane phosphoinositides by 49·5 ± 9·9% (P < 0·05, n = 3). The present results suggest that the potential action of glucocorticoids on vascular smooth muscle contractility is, at least in part, through controlling α1-adrenoceptor-mediated second-messenger production.
Journal of Endocrinology (1992) 133, 405–411