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Thomas M Braxton, Dionne E A Sarpong, Janine L Dovey, Anne Guillou, Bronwen A J Evans, Juan M Castellano, Bethany E Keenan, Saja Baraghithy, Sam L Evans, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Patrice Mollard, Joseph Tam and Timothy Wells

males, this was not significantly different ( P  > 0.05). In contrast, female PWS-IC del mice showed a 41% reduction in PRL content ( P  < 0.05; Fig. 4C ); the marked sexual dimorphism seen in WT mice ( P  < 0.0001) being retained in PWS-IC del

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Evelyn Davies, Selma Omer, John F Morris and Helen C Christian

1991 ). Sexual dimorphism in corticosterone secretion is well established: female rodents display elevated corticosterone secretion in basal and some stress conditions relative to males ( Critchlow et al. 1963 ). Furthermore, estrogen exerts

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Jodi L Downs and Henryk F Urbanski

). Unlike their old male counterparts and young females, the old peri- and post-menopausal females had relatively constant levels of plasma leptin across the day and night. However, this aging-related sexual dimorphism was not evident in all of the old

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Rajat K Das, Sarmistha Banerjee and Bernard H Shapiro

permanently alter some functional aspect normally responsive to the hormone and often establishing a sexual dimorphism ( Csaba 2008 ). Moreover, the tissue is programmable for only a brief developmental period, after which time the tissue becomes permanently

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Astrid Chamson-Reig, Sandra M Thyssen, Edith Arany and David J Hill

the adults at age 50 with a profound sexual dimorphism, the relative obesity being seen in the females but not in the males ( Ravelli et al. 1999 ). Dietary modifications in early life, such as altered composition, excess or restricted intake

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Lianne Abrahams, Nina M Semjonous, Phil Guest, Agnieszka Zielinska, Beverly Hughes, Gareth G Lavery and Paul M Stewart

, although the ultimate reason for the observed sexual dimorphism remains obscure. 11β-HSD1/H6PDH HETs and double HETs have a urinary 11-DHC profile that is comparable to that of WT animals ( Fig. 2 ). Loss of one 11β-HSD1 and/or one H6PDH allele therefore

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S Morimoto, C A Mendoza-Rodríguez, M Hiriart, M E Larrieta, P Vital and M A Cerbón

progressive hyperglycemia, accompanied by lymphocytic infiltration of pancreatic islets. In some basic aspects, this model mimics recent-onset IDDM in human patients ( O’Brien et al. 1996 ). There is evidence of sexual dimorphism in the incidence and

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Sophie A Clarke and Waljit S Dhillo

. Although the effects of kisspeptin in ageing populations remain largely unexplored, the kisspeptin neuron population in the infundibular nucleus clearly increases with time. Interestingly, however, in the same manner that sexual dimorphism exists with

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Chandrika D Mahalingam, Bharat Reddy Sampathi, Sonali Sharma, Tanuka Datta, Varsha Das, Abdul B Abou-Samra and Nabanita S Datta

and death in astrocytes and possibly contributes to sexual dimorphisms in brain development ( Zhang et al . 2002 ). MAPKs regulate cyclin D1 ( Terada et al . 1999 ), an unique regulator of cell cycle progression and cell proliferation ( Sherr

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María E Díaz, Johanna G Miquet, Soledad P Rossi, Pablo E Irene, Ana I Sotelo, Mónica B Frungieri, Daniel Turyn and Lorena González

humans . American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 283 1008 – 1015 . ( doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00513.2001 ) Jansson JO Edén S Isaksson O 1985 Sexual dimorphism in the control of growth hormone secretion . Endocrine Reviews