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Sushil K Mahata, Hong Zheng, Sumana Mahata, Xuefei Liu and Kaushik P Patel

& Lee Wong 2015 ). Although plasma DA concentration is similar to those of EPI, circulating DA does not act as a hormone because of its much lower potency. Plasma concentrations of NE and EPI increase dramatically in response to physical, psychological

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Baiba Steinbrekera and Robert Roghair

and coworkers (2011) have each shown that former IUGR men but not women have increased baseline blood pressure that is exacerbated by psychological stress, and this sexual dimorphism has been a consistent theme in preclinical animal models ( Intapad

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Robert T Chatterton Jr, Esnar T Mateo, Nanjiang Hou, Alfred W Rademaker, Simbi Acharya, V Craig Jordan and Monica Morrow

progesterone in such subjects. The physical stress of exhausting aerobic activity has been shown to decrease salivary progesterone in women ( Ellison & Lager 1986 ) but the effect of psychological stressors on salivary hormone levels of sex steroids has not

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Tessa J Roseboom

psychological stressors in adults after prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine . Journal of Hypertension 24 . ( ) Painter RC de Rooij SR Roseboom TJ Simmers TA Osmond C Barker DJ Bleker OP

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Mohammad Reza Safarinejad, Kamran Azma and Ali Asgar Kolahi

stress that challenges homeostasis. In response to this stressor, the endocrine and nervous systems are known to react and participate in the maintenance of homeostasis and the development of physical fitness. Regardless of the many known health benefits

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Thomas Dickmeis

, at least in rats, psychological stresses (such as a novel environment or restraint) elicit the largest response early during the day, in the rest phase. By contrast, physical stresses (such as hypoglycaemic shock) do so later in the day, at the onset

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Xin Li, Hongjiao Li, Di Zhang, Guojin Xu, Jinglin Zhang and Sheng Cui

. 2012 , Davis et al. 2013 , Ramaswamy & Weinbauer 2014 ). There are reports that the stress, including the environment and serious threat or psychological pressure to human, profoundly affects the activities of the HPG axis ( Lennartsson et al

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Gareth Leng, Rafael Pineda, Nancy Sabatier and Mike Ludwig

stress inhibits vasopressin secretion but has no effect on oxytocin secretion ( Onaka et al . 2003 ). By contrast, in humans, vasopressin secretion appears to be stimulated by psychological stressors, such as social stress ( Siegenthaler et al . 2014

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J Bancroft

several examples of evidence supporting this have been presented. It is also becoming increasingly clear that the sexuality of women is powerfully influenced by mood, energy and well-being, as well as by other psychological mechanisms. This

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Vichit Supornsilchai, Olle Söder and Konstantin Svechnikov

involved in mediating hypothalamic responses to different types of stress. Various forms of psychological stress increased hypothalamic IL-1β levels and enhanced circulating level of IL-1β inducing release of the CRF and activation of the HPA axis ( Nguyen