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Norihiko Kato, Keiichiro Kitahara, Susan R Rittling, Kazuhisa Nakashima, David T Denhardt, Hisashi Kurosawa, Yoichi Ezura and Masaki Noda

produced by the cells in the osteoblastic lineage have been shown to play important roles in both bone formation and bone resorption ( Pilbeam et al. 2002 ). Among several PGs, PGE 2 exhibits anabolic effects on bone when administered systemically or

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Rhonda D Prisby

( Kousteni & Bilezikian 2008 ). Continual release of PTH 1–84 or administration of PTH 1–34 and PTHrP 1–36 caused declines in bone mineral density and bone formation and increased bone resorption ( Hansen et al. 2010 , Horwitz et al. 2011 ); however

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Karla J Suchacki, Fiona Roberts, Andrea Lovdel, Colin Farquharson, Nik M Morton, Vicky E MacRae and William P Cawthorn

bone resorption and decreased bone formation and percentage body fat, MAT was significantly increased in CR mice ( Devlin et al . 2010 ), suggesting that increased MAT is associated with impaired skeletal maturity; however, CR in rabbits causes bone

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Kenneth A Philbrick, Stephen A Martin, Amy R Colagiovanni, Adam J Branscum, Russell T Turner and Urszula T Iwaniec

proteins such as protease cathepsin K or chloride transporter ClCN7 required for osteoclastic activity but not for osteoclast formation and survival ( Del Fattore et al . 2008 ). Additionally, drugs that inhibit bone resorption, such as bisphosphonates

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Nicholaos I Papachristou, Harry C Blair, Kyriakos E Kypreos and Dionysios J Papachristou

is a useful inhibitor of osteoclast formation ( Boyle et al . 2003 , Martin & Sims 2015 ). Increased RANKL/OPG ratio promotes osteoclast formation and thus bone resorption ( Fig. 1 ). Primary osteoclast defects are rare, usually including defects

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Abhaya Krishnan and Sridhar Muthusami

bone formation and resorption ( Huang et al. 2010 ). High level of insulin affects the recruitment and differentiation of osteoclast by impairing the RANKL signaling pathway. Huang and coworkers studied that the addition of insulin to the ex vivo

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Miskal Sbaihi, Karine Rousseau, Sylvie Baloche, François Meunier, Martine Fouchereau-Peron and Sylvie Dufour

Physiology and Biochemistry 13 379 – 386 . Persson P Johannsson SH Takaji Y Björnsson BT 1997 Estradiol-17β and nutritional status affect calcium balance, scale and bone resorption, and bone formation in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

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Filip Callewaert, Mieke Sinnesael, Evelien Gielen, Steven Boonen and Dirk Vanderschueren

puberty in boys, without major differences in absolute growth rate between sexes ( Seeman 2002 , Iuliano-Burns et al . 2009 ). In mice, on the other hand, absolute gender differences in periosteal and endocortical bone formation also contribute to the

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Hong Liu, Jian Guo, Lin Wang, Ning Chen, Andrew Karaplis, David Goltzman and Dengshun Miao

, whereas 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 acts predominantly on endochondral bone formation, and both play collaborative roles in modulating skeletal and calcium homeostasis ( Xue et al . 2005 ). However, the relative contribution of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and PTH to dentin

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Zuzana Saidak, Carole Le Henaff, Sofia Azzi, Caroline Marty and Pierre J Marie

Introduction Bone loss associated with ageing is characterised by decreased bone formation relative to bone resorption, resulting in altered bone microarchitecture, osteoporosis and increased risk of fractures ( Khosla et al . 2011 ). The age