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Rosalba Senese, Federica Cioffi, Pieter de Lange, Fernando Goglia and Antonia Lanni

. Only 20% of the T 3 in circulation is secreted directly by the gland itself. The remaining T 3 derives from the peripheral monodeiodination of T 4 . Deiodinase activity regulates the local and systemic availability of T 3 and other iodothyronines

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Anne H van der Spek, Eric Fliers and Anita Boelen

distribution have been observed between humans and rodents ( Bernal et al . 2015 ). After being transported into the cell, TH is metabolized by the iodothyronine deiodinases. This a family of enzymes that remove an iodine atom from the phenolic or tyrosyl

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J Kwakkel, O Chassande, H C van Beeren, W M Wiersinga and A Boelen

'Neill 2004 ). This inflammatory response is accompanied by a decrease in liver type 1 deiodinase (D1) mRNA and activity and a decrease in serum tri-iodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ), all characteristic of NTI ( Boelen et al . 2004 ). Using this

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Juan C Solis-S, Patricia Villalobos, Aurea Orozco, Guadalupe Delgado, Andres Quintanar-Stephano, Pablo Garcia-Solis, Hebert L Hernandez-Montiel, Ludivina Robles-Osorio and Carlos Valverde-R

& Solis-S 2009 ). Moreover, a pair of thyroidal dehalogenases recycles iodide in the rat thyroid gland: iodotyrosine dehalogenase (tDh) and iodothyronine deiodinase type 1 (ID1). tDh (human homolog iodotyrosine deiodinase, IYD or DEHAL1) deiodinates mono

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Marcelo A Christoffolete, Márton Doleschall, Péter Egri, Zsolt Liposits, Ann Marie Zavacki, Antonio C Bianco and Balázs Gereben

encodes type 2 deiodinase (D2), a tightly regulated oxidoreductase selenoenzyme that catalyzes thyroid hormone activation by converting thyroxine (T 4 ) to T 3 , thus generating ligand for TR ( Gereben et al . 2008 ). Remarkably, a mouse with a targeted

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A J Forhead and A L Fowden

hormones in the fetus, placenta, and mother. TRH, thyrotropin-releasing hormone; TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone; T 4 , thyroxine; T 3 , triiodothyronine; rT 3 , reverse T 3 ; T 2 , diiodothyronine; S, sulfated; D1, D2, and D3, deiodinases; OATP, organic

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Isabela Teixeira Bonomo, Patrícia Cristina Lisboa, Magna Cottini Fonseca Passos, Simone Bezerra Alves, Adelina Martha Reis and Egberto Gaspar de Moura

at 500 nm and the values were expressed as absorbance (O.D)/mg of mitochondrial protein. Protein was measured using the method described by Bradford (1976) . Iodothyronine de-iodinase activity Type 1 (D1) and 2 (D2) de-iodinase activities were

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S C P Dutra, E G Moura, A L Rodrigues, P C Lisboa, I Bonomo, F P Toste and M C F Passos

. Protein was measured using the method described by Bradford (1976) . Hepatic deiodinase type I (D1) activity determination Liver tissue (250 mg) was homogenized in 50 mM Tris–HCl buffer (pH 6.8) and centrifuged at 1500

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Taeko Nishiwaki-Ohkawa and Takashi Yoshimura

(MCT8) ( Friesema et al . 2003 , Herwig et al . 2009 ) and organic anion-transporting peptide 1c1 (Oatp1c1) ( Abe et al . 2002 , Hagenbuch & Meier 2004 ). Once inside the cell, T 4 is converted into active T 3 by type 2 deiodinase (DIO2) by

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Guillermo Vazquez-Anaya, Bridget Martinez, José G Soñanez-Organis, Daisuke Nakano, Akira Nishiyama and Rudy M Ortiz

peripheral tissues, the genomic effects of TH occur after the intracellular transport of the predominate TH, thyroxine (T 4 ) and its deiodination to triiodothyronine (T 3 ), by either deiodinase type 1 (DI1) or type II (DI2). The activity of these enzymes