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Elisa Keating, Ana Correia-Branco, João R Araújo, Manuela Meireles, Rita Fernandes, Luísa Guardão, João T Guimarães, Fátima Martel and Conceição Calhau

. 2011 ). To date, several studies report the programing effects of maternal FA supplementation on the offspring's health, mainly regarding autism ( Castro et al . 2014 ), asthma, insulin resistance, and cancer (see Burdge & Lillycrop (2012) for a

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K L Franko, A J Forhead and A L Fowden

et al . 2006 ). In pregnant rats, maternal treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (dex), via a number of different routes leads to IUGR and glucose intolerance of the adult offspring, accompanied by changes in the liver, fat, and

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G. J. Boer and J. Kruisbrink

ABSTRACT

A controlled-delivery module based on microporous Accurel polypropylene tubing, implanted subcutaneously in the rat, was used to release oxytocin for at least 40 days both in vitro and in vivo. Using a dosage rate of approximately 650 ng oxytocin per day and implanting the device in rats on day 17 of pregnancy, the known physiological action of oxytocin in advancing labour was confirmed. The increased concentrations of oxytocin in the mothers gave rise to adverse effects; the course of labour was protracted during expulsions of the first pups and the birth weight was reduced. Postnatally, body development of the pups was also affected, although there was partial recovery when the pups started to feed independently. Both pre- and postnatal exposure of pups to an oxytocin-treated mother reduced their body water turnover measured at 1 month of age.

The effects on the course of parturition and during lactation might be explained by a blockade of uterine and mammary gland oxytocin receptors respectively, thereby inhibiting a proper response to pulsatile endogenous oxytocin secretion. The changes in water metabolism, which are opposite to those described for the heterologous hormone vasopressin, are less easy to explain since maternal oxytocin is not supposed to pass the placenta. The results may indicate that clinical use of oxytocin for induction of labour and lactation may have hitherto unrecognized side-effects.

J. Endocr. (1984) 101, 121–129

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Chidum Ezenwaka, Risha Kalloo, Mathias Uhlig, Robert Schwenk and Juergen Eckel

Introduction Several research studies in different populations have confirmed that offspring and first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of developing the disorder in later life

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G Boaventura, G Casimiro-Lopes, C C Pazos-Moura, E Oliveira, P C Lisboa and E G Moura

the dam in the late lactation, thus also inducing an early weaning of offspring ( Lima et al . 2011 , 2013 ). Using a well-established model of hypothalamic obesity in rodents (neonatal treatment with monosodium l -glutamate), Scomparin et al

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Menghong Yan and Qiwei Zhai

Introduction A number of studies have shown that the effects of environmental factors such as nutrition, stress, toxins and infections in parents can be transmitted to their offspring. These findings support the theory of Lamarck, who proposed

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Brendan J Waddell, Maike Bollen, Caitlin S Wyrwoll, Trevor A Mori and Peter J Mark

Introduction A poor fetal environment and the associated restriction of fetal growth have been consistently linked to adverse phenotypic outcomes in adult offspring, with increased risk of elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance and disturbances

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Tracey A Quinn, Udani Ratnayake, Margie Castillo-Melendez, Karen M Moritz, Hayley Dickinson and David W Walker

-term consequences of a brief exposure to maternally administered glucocorticoid, as a model of transient stress in pregnancy, on the synthesis of DHEA and cortisol in adult offspring. A low dose of the synthetic glucocorticoid DEX was used in this study to model a

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P C Lisboa, E de Oliveira, A C Manhães, A P Santos-Silva, C R Pinheiro, V Younes-Rapozo, L C Faustino, T M Ortiga-Carvalho and E G Moura

adrenal function and serum glucocorticoid levels with higher levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in adult offspring whose mothers were nicotine-exposed (Pinheiro et al . 2011). Thyroid hormones (THs), T 4

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Shibin Ding, Ying Fan, Nana Zhao, Huiqin Yang, Xiaolei Ye, Dongliang He, Xin Jin, Jian Liu, Chong Tian, Hongyu Li, Shunqing Xu and Chenjiang Ying

. Therefore, it is necessary to study whether HFD will aggravate the adverse effects of exposure to a ‘safe’ dose of BPA. Perinatal exposure to the predicted ‘safe’ dose of BPA has been found to disrupt glucose homeostasis in adult offspring ( Alonso