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Andreas Börjesson and Carina Carlsson

. The endoproteolytic processing of proinsulin to insulin is mediated by proinsulin convertases 1 and 2 (PC1 and PC2) ( Bailyes et al. 1992 , Bennett et al. 1992 , Steiner et al. 1996 ). The conversion of proinsulin to insulin is regulated by

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L Bai, G Meredith, and B E Tuch

presence of GLP-1. Expression of genes of β-cell development during the differentiation process The transcription factors PDX-1, NKx6.1, NeuroD and Ngn3 (known to be involved in pancreatic β-cell development in vivo

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Shinichi Kato, Siqin, Itaru Minagawa, Takuya Aoshima, Dai Sagata, Hirokazu Konishi, Keiichiro Yogo, Tatsuo Kawarasaki, Hiroshi Sasada, Hiroshi Tomogane, and Tetsuya Kohsaka

evidence that RLN is expressed as a prohormone in Leydig cells in the boar testis that is apparently linked to the absence of expression of PC1/3 participating in processing of the mature hormone, whereas RXFP1 mRNA and protein are expressed in Leydig

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Jonathan J Nicholls, Mary Jane Brassill, Graham R Williams, and J H Duncan Bassett

receptor (TSHR), stimulates thyroid follicular cell growth and the synthesis and secretion of both the pro-hormone 3,5,3′,5′- l -tetraiodothyronine (T 4 ) and, to a lesser extent, the active hormone 3,5,3′- l -triiodothyronine (T 3 ). Thyroid hormones exert

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Ian S McLennan and Michael W Pankhurst

cleaved to AMH N,C . A priori , the relevant physiological measures of AMH may include the concentration of proAMH, the concentration of AMH N,C and/or the relative levels of proAMH and AMH N,C . The latter can be defined as the AMH prohormone index (API

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Patrice D Cani, Catherine A Daubioul, Brigitte Reusens, Claude Remacle, Grégory Catillon, and Nathalie M Delzenne

( Reimer & McBurney 1996 , Cani et al. 2004 ). In the intestine, the post-translational modification of the proglucagon gene by prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) leads to the production of glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36) amide (GLP-1(7–36) amide) which, among

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Ying Wang, Xiao-Hui Wang, Deng-Xuan Fan, Yuan Zhang, Ming-Qing Li, Hai-Xia Wu, and Li-Ping Jin

, all of which share the same basic cleavage target motifs (K/R)−(X) n −(K/R)↓, with n =0, 2, 4, or 6. For instance, beta nerve growth factor (β-NGF) is the substrate of furin and processed β-NGF is a mediator for neuron survival while secreted

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Ronald Gonzalez, Benjamin K Reingold, Xiaodong Gao, Mandeep P Gaidhu, Robert G Tsushima, and Suraj Unniappan

Introduction Nesfatin-1 is an anorectic hormone encoded in the N-terminal region of the precursor peptide nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2; Oh-I et al . 2006 ). Nesfatin-1 is proposed to be processed from NUCB2 by prohormone convertases, the enzymes that

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K Eerola, S Virtanen, L Vähätalo, L Ailanen, M Cai, V Hruby, M Savontaus, and E Savontaus

sorting sequences of pro-opiomelanocortin and the endogenous cleavage sites for appropriate intracellular processing. Enzymatic cleavage of the N-terminal POMC by protein convertases (PC) 1/3 and 2 produces γ 3 -MSH. The vector uses the vesicular

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Vishwajit Sur Chowdhury, Takayoshi Ubuka, Tomohiro Osugi, Taichi Shimura, and Kazuyoshi Tsutsui

four peptides shared the C-terminal sequence LPXRF motif (with X representing L in nLPXRFa-2, and Q in nLPXRFa-1, -3 and -4). In the frog, it has been demonstrated that the proprotein convertases PC1 and PC2, which are responsible for the processing of